Message

Blue sky

Message

1.I tweeted twice on May 14th (Japan time). The content is about a knowledge of a new type coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) which was unknown until now, and written by Mrs. or Miss, Saori Imai, who is an EU researcher, journalist and editor living in France. I am introducing it by linking to its article.

2.Articles are written in Japanese. The crux of the article is his remark that Professor Luc Montagnier, who discovered HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was said, “The sequence of SARS-CoV-2 contains another sequence. This is not a natural mixture, the original virus was a bat virus, so someone recombined it”.

3.The Professor was said (this happened), “The most reasonable hypothesis is that someone wanted to make a vaccine for AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).”And he also was said, “Therefore this is why someone created the coronavirus, and the virus ‘ran away’ from the lab in Wuhan.”

4.The Professor would not be saying that the sequence incorporated is the one of HIV. But the professor was said “The most reasonable hypothesis that this happened is that someone wanted to make a vaccine for AIDS. So someone created the coronavirus”, the Professor would be being suggested it to be HIV.

5.From here, I will organize and write.

a.The Professor would be a discoverer of the AIDS virus (HIV) and would be a virus researcher.

b.At January 2020, before the Professor’s utterance, a group of researchers in India compared the spike glycoprotein sequences of 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) with the one of SARS CoV, and they have published that they found that 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) contains four insertions. [Figure 2 in Imai’s article]

c. Further, the group of India’s researchers said, “Surprisingly, each of the four inserts aligned with short segments of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) proteins,” Next, it states that the glycoproteins (GP-120) and substance (GAG=glycosaminoglycan) that constitute HIV-1 that are replaced in this sequence are similar to the glycoproteins (GP) and substance (PolyP) that are components of 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2), Moreover they are coming to the conclusion that say “It is unlikely that all 4 inserts in the 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein fortuitously match with 2 key structural proteins of an unrelated virus (HIV-1).”

d.Professor Luc Montagnier would be approved the thesis published by a group of researchers in India, based on the above mentioned 2 to 4 descriptions. It was said that a group of India’s researchers have retracted the thesis, which they published, due to many objections.

6.”The truth on the scientific facts is heavy. Even if someone tries to hide it, it appears.” This is the Professor Luc Montagnier’s words.

7.SARS-CoV-2 is an artificially created virus. And it’s more troublesome than we think. I propose to change its name to AIDS-CoV-2. We still think that this virus is like the influenza virus, but it’s not. More dangerous. We have to make more medicines and vaccines. I would like to convey this to everyone.

Note: To go to the article I tweeted, please click on the Twitter logo of the upper right corner. It will jump to Twitter. Imai’s article also has a link to the thesis by a group of researchers in India.

Coroku Maeda

          

Message

Cherry Blossoms

Dear friends!

1. Now, the world becomes in a dangerous situation by the spread of Infectious Pneumonia due to the new type coronavirus. However the world will be recovering. The people who make to recover each own world exist. And our world will be changing. Under these circumstances, we must live on.

2. Doctors in the field would be spoken that Infectious Pneumonia caused by the new type coronavirus is rapidly becoming serious symptom and causes death in a short time. And the rapid increase in the number of infected people and their serious symptom are being an excessive burden on the doctors, nurses, and staff who would be treated with limited personnel. Also, in the medical field, the required number of medical protective equipment such as life-saving artificial respirators, oxygenator(ECMO) and goggles that protect doctors and nurses from infections, eye shields, face guards, masks, etc. are increasing.

3.  First and foremost, we must not be infected with the new type coronavirus to protect our own lives. This also means reducing the burden on doctors, nurses, and staff in the medical field. Careful hand washing with soap, mouth rinsing with clean tap water, ventilation in a clean environment, refraining from going out. And when we go out or go to work, we should wear a mask and avoid a closed space, a place where people are crowding, a scene where people are in direct contact with each other or talk. And when we go out or go to work, let’s act by taking a distance of 2m between people which is now called social distance. Let’s devise the style of work and attendance. And wash our clothes, underwear, let’s keep our body clean.

4. It is better to assume that the wave of infection with the new type coronavirus will occur at least up to three waves, when we consider the Spanish Ful(influenza). And, according to the report, the required number of antibodies that are resistance-matter against new type coronavirus, which infected people make in their body, is a few and mutate during the process of infection, so we may get infected again. Therefore this virus is really malicious. There is also a report (Harvard University) that there is a possibility of epidemic in 2024 again. However we are not powerless.

5. The media reports that the symptoms have improved by using pharmaceutical formulations such as America’s Remdesivir (Gilliad Sciences), Japan’s Avigan (Fujifilm), Alvesco (Teijin Pharma), France’s Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine) (Sanofi) and serum extracted from the patient’s body. Also, WHO is announcing medical institutions, laboratories, universities and pharmaceutical companies currently working on the development of a vaccine against the new type coronavirus. I will introduce its address.

https://www.who.int/blueprint/priority-diseases/key-action/Novel-Coronavirus_Landscape_nCoV-4april2020.pdf?ua=1

Now, hold onto our hope strongly with one hand and move on!

Note:

Information on formulations with improved symptoms is inadequate about countries in Europe and their respective regions of the world. Please check the situation of each country in each area by yourself.

Note 2:

Please check the side-effects of each pharmaceutical formulation by yourself. (2020.4.21)

Liberalism course for junior high school students, high school students, No12 -Raise the flag of liberalism.-

Raise the flag of liberalism.

February sky

*1. This article is an English translation of the Japanese version which uploaded on April 23, 2017. This article is writing for junior high school and high school students in Japan, but here, I am talking about the essence of liberalism. Marx and Engels state by a short phrase in “Die deutsche ideologie” the dominance of socialism over liberalism, but here is an answer to that. I am hoping everyone could be read this.

*2.Infectious disease pneumonias due to the new coronavirus are spreading from Wuhan, China. Also there is a news that say, “This virus has leaked from the bacterial research facility in Wuhan”. It is highly infectious and it is causing many deaths. But, either way, vaccines will be developed and Infectious disease pneumonias are going to end. However, if I talk about this situation coldly, I will sympathize with a person concerned and I want that each person make to try hard not to spread the infection, but I cannot but saying that the confidence in the People’s Republic of China’s national system has fallen to area of the dangerous.

The People’s Republic of China (hereinafter abbreviated as China) is being a nation that is subjugating people by the Communist Party’s self-logic. This self-logic is, for people, dangerous in the area of ​​freedom and human rights, for companies, dangerous in the area of ​​intellectual property, and for developing countries, its infrastructure development is, if saying by Marx economics terms, it is China and Chinese companies that are ’accumulation of capital’ through this infrastructure investment, and this developing country has been remaining huge debts, thereby it is dangerous contents that say that its repayment has forced them to accept China’s increased control. By the trade, now, the United States make an objection. And they are belligerent. This can be understood by looking at their attitudes in India, the Republic of China, Vietnam, the South China Sea, the East China Sea, and waters near Japan. Into here, the new Infectious disease pneumonia joins from China to the world people. By things have come until to here, I cannot but saying the following. “Oh, Chinese people, please do somehow or other!”

A.Raise the flag of liberalism.

1. Freedom is to release the ability of the human being. Liberalism is to assert and seek it. And a liberalism society is a society that guarantees it. This becomes a simple proposition that expresses a liberalism society.

2. We don’t usually think about this very much. We go to school and choose a workplace or occupation such as a private company, non-profit corporation, administrative organization, political party organization, work hard to get a position there, feel the joy of accomplishing the task,  we live each person’s life. And here, daily works take place, meetings, deals, contracts take place, factories are up, products are made, sold and consumed, according to the rules that have been shaped by the predecessors so far. And if we consider this aggregate of people’s activities as one unit, the spread of this unit will be to the World from regions such as villages → counties ・ cities → prefectures → nations → Asia, Europe, Africa, North America, South America and Oceania. For the people being 100 years ago, it depended on a difference of the industrial production capacity and a difference of the power of the culture of an area and the country where its person lived in, but the world were far-off countries. Nowadays, the world is near to our countries, where young people can go anywhere (however, there are some areas and nations which cannot be accessible). Companies are doing business in the world.

3. How the world is reflected in your thinking? Even if in what kind of method, it is good to think of the world. It becomes training for thinking. The situation where a person is placing is different in a one’s each. And it is good to choose our own position in those, I think so.

4.We sometimes worry in a position that we have chosen or been given position. At its time, whatever your work on your position, remember the phrase “Freedom is to release the ability of the human being” which written in first of this blog. Freedom is to release the ability of the human being. If your abilities are locked up, think of how you can exert your abilities and behave alive. And talk with your superior. Please never turn a feeling to worry about to yourself. It is same at school. Please talk with your teacher. Even if you talk with your teacher, if you cannot improve anything, please talk with a vice‐principal or principal. Thereby if workplaces and schools improve, it’s a fruit of liberalism and society. Liberalism is not the one that is expressed by difficult words and concepts (what tries to define words verbally). In this way, it is the one which anyone can understand. And you, who do this, are now raising a liberalism flag honorably.

5. Before little, on TV, a renowned professor of history at the Tokyo University, Professor Kazuto Hongo, would be introduced Taisuke Itagaki as a person whom would like to take up in NHK’s taiga drama. Itagaki is known as a person who said “Even if Itagaki dies, freedom will never die” when he was attacked by a ruffian. But even if this is not Itagaki, you and we who behave in above way are raising liberalism flags honorably and are taking over in history of it. And, this will be taken over by the people who will be carrying the society from now on.

B.About me

1. When I was young, it is toddling walk but there was a time that I was trying to be a faithful student of Marx. One of the books I read at that days, there was “Die deutsche ideologie”. In it, there is a passage that says “In a frame of set prerequisite in society, this right to enjoy unhindered coincidence has been traditionally called human-like (human’s) free that seems to be a human being”.

2. Answering this was my problem. Its answer becomes an expression that expresses a simple human will and action that say “Freedom is to release the ability of the human being. Liberalism is to assert and seek it. And a liberalism society is a society that guarantees it.” Freedom is to release of human abilities.

Information

Information

January sky

 

Dear friends, Happy New Year.

 

On the election of the Republic of China’s President, congratulations
Tsai Ing-wen (蔡英文) President was re-elected with the large vote difference. Also, on the election of members of Ward council in the Hong Kong, congratulations the members of the Democracy’s group were elected overwhelmingly.

 

I would like to inform you the followings.

1. If you want to share this blog articles by your group and you want to quote from this blog articles, please do it freely, but, in the case of quotation, please show the source article.

2. For technical issues with your Internet connection, please contact your connection provider.

3. Earlier, there was a request, when uploading this blog article, as having hope that upload by using Internet Explorer. Therefore I was doing so, but because of a problem of my PC side, I have been also starting to use Google.
And today, when I open Internet Explorer for uploading this article, on the 64-bit version’s display RSS was not shown its detail. So I would continue to upload using Google.

4. This blog, also this year, as one person of liberalist, wants to reconsider what humans have been talking in the history and talk the essence of them. It can be said to be a challenging that is over my abilities, however considering that this world is being realized by what humans think, act, and according to be making up, this work will become a milestone that create the next human world, I’m thinking so. I hope that these articles are made your hint for your thoughts.

5. I sincerely pray that your this year will be active and a vibrant and prosperous year. I would send you many thanks sincerely for your reading this blog.

January 2020
                                                                 Author: Coroku Maeda

Talk the freedom



Talk the freedom

The blue sky in November
 The blue sky in November

* This article is an English translation of the Japanese version which had uploaded on June 23, 2013.

A.Freedom and society

1. The concept (meaning and content that the word is including) of freedom is a higher-order concept than the concepts of socialism and communism that have so far appeared in history.

2.On the freedom societies, humans have higher sociality and societies will develop higher than the societies that have appeared and that have been called socialism societies and communism societies in history.

B.The freedom society’s morality and the goodness

1.The concept of freedom includes the concept of morality and goodness. We call this liberalism. The concept of socialism and communism, too, includes the concept of morality and goodness. However, in each concept of the morality and the goodness in the concept of liberalism and the concept of socialism and communism each real methods carrying on are different.

2.The morality and goodness in the concept of liberalism rest on its developments of the spontaneous sprits which are independence of individual human beings. We call an individual’s spontaneity the independence of will. Society is formed not only morality and goodness, and it formed by the spontaneity of this individual person. And society is always going to open the opportunities equally for this spontaneity of individual person. (We have to do so.) We call this the liberalism society.

3.The morality and goodness of the liberalism society are shaped by the spontaneous sprits (= the Subject which say in philosophy ) which are independence of individual human. In the liberalism society, the consensus of the subject becomes the morality and goodness of society, which again acts on the subject and forms the morality that say “should be, should do”. Liberalism society is improved and advance by the interaction between this subject and society.

C.Morality and goodness of socialism, communism society, or exclusionism society 

1. The morality and goodness of socialism, communism society, or exclusionism society are written by a small number of people or one group in society.

2.Their morality and goodness are enforced on all members of society without going through the process of obtaining the approval of all members of the society or by pseudo procedures.

3.In this nation, access to information, freedom of speech, and academic freedom are limited, and overall, the opportunity for the spontaneous desires of individuals is not “always equal”. We call this the closing society. 

4.In addition, when this  morality and goodness are performed in one group in society, its self-identity often appears as aggression against others. We call this exclusionism.

D.The conditions of freedom

1. For being freedom society, we develop democracy and we have to hold full discussions, and the system to determine must always be considered and determined to reflect the consensus of people.

2.To avoid a violent solution of the problem, it must be parliamentarism.

3.By the people grow up, we have to select politicians who are morally good and whom we can put trust for the fate of the nation. And we have to avoid persons of fake politician who collect votes by populism and sensationalism and endanger the people and the nation. 

E.What liberalism society aims for

1.People and society advance toward beauty. That is, “the way which people and society are being is beautiful” is the aim of a liberalism society.

2.The realization of a society where people and society are beautiful proves that the liberalism society is a higher-order society and a society that can aim for higher-order society.

F.Message

1.Please, would you try to read Karl Popper’s “The Open Society and Its Enemies”, “The Logic of Scientific Discovery”, “The Poverty of Historicismy”, and “Conjectures and Refutations”. You might be thought “Popper? It’s old”. However, by interacting with Popper, about the problem such as how people challenge science and thinking, Popper is helpful for us for opening up new field of view, I think so.

D.Tea time

1.There would be a violinist named Kazuhito Yamane. Born in 1995, he is still 18 years old (However, as of 2013). Yesterday Saturday, NHK’s E TV broadcasted the ‛N Symphony Hope Concert’, on there he played “Spain Symphony” that Édouard Lalo composed. I only listened to the 4th and 5th movements, but I felt an outstanding talent in the smoothness of the beginning of the 4th movement. I would be written it down.

Information

1.Provider server construction

The provider who is uploading this blog will do change construction for a server from 20:00 on December 8, 2019 until 6:00 (Japan / Tokyo time) the next day. Operation may become unstable after construction from 15 days before construction. Please would be aware.

2.About unpublishing comments

Many comments from everyone are reaching. Checking the links that are attached to the comments one by one is, in the current manager’s technology, both in technology and time, it is overflowing from the manager’s hands. Also the provider server for this blog is in Japan. Contents of link page are legal in your country, but there are ones which not allowed by Japanese law. And sometimes, security software warns about the contents of link page. As an administrator, I publish all your comments and I thought to advertise your link pages, so I had been trying to do so. However, in consideration of the safety of reader’s everybody, from now on, as an administrator, all comments would make to be private, and I would contact you this. The date and time to make comments private does not decide still. Sequentially the comments that are currently open will make to be private, so I would like to get everybody’s understanding. Thank you very much to everyone.

An Abdication of current His Majesty the Tennou



An Abdication of current His Majesty the Tennou

White Ume blossoms in the spring sky

*1  This article was uploaded on April 28 in the Japanese version. Japanese honorifics are passive voice in English. I hope that you would be read as one of article that Japanese described the His Majesty the Tennou. Thank you very much for your access.

*2 The words of Emperor and Empress was used in the description of the Kougou who was originally uploaded. In Japan today, if the words of the Emperor and Empress are expressed as the word of the Tennou and Kougou, it does not accurately express the current situation of Japan. I corrected it.

A.An Abdication of current His Majesty the Tennou

1.Current His Majesty the Tennou would be abdicated on April 30th. An era of current His Majesty the Tennou was, -as the Majesty himself would be expressed by his own words, truly, his Majesty the Tennou ownself would be deeply thought of what own existence should be as ‘the symbol of the unity of the people’, and have been shown to our people it by His Majesty own behavior,- was an era.

2.The era of Showa, who is the previous era of current His Majesty the Tennou, inherited the throne of Tennou as a divinity. And in the world trend that had brought the defeat of war, although the Majesty still had been had a consciousness saying “My Government”, he had been had a consciousness of “I” who is existing together the nation’s people. And the Majesty had been acceded to the Tennou that had become ‘the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people’ that said in the Chapter 1 first Article of the Constitution of Japan from the Tennou that had been deified as ‘Akitsumikami’.

3.The current His Majesty the Tennou was always there when we, the hearts of the people, are shook and in hardships. He was in Okinawa. He was on the island of the Pacific Front of the previous Great War. The His Majesty the Tennou’s existence would have been become the existence which, for example, even if I select my mind of an individual who say “I”, when I think of the His Majesty the Tennou’s appearance, which my mind becomes soft. I would think that this is what everyone in the present people thinks. These are gifts of His Majesty’s heart, and I would deeply appreciate to His Majesty’s heart with sincerity of the truth of my heart.

4.And there would be were an appearance of the Her Majesty in the place where the His Majesty the Tennou would be. The Her Majesty would be made the Her Majesty own heart of the His Majesty the Tennou’s heart, and Her Majesty’s dedication to the His Majesty the Tennou would be naturally her dedication to the people, and it also were the Her Majesty’s will. And to this Her Majesty’s heart I would express my deep appreciation with sincerity of the truth of my heart.

B.The beginning of the era of Reiwa

1.The royal prince・Naruhito His Highness would be acceded to the throne on May 1 and would be been the new Tennnou. Everyone strongly hope that the era of Reiwa will be the one that is beautifully harmonious and peaceful era. The royal prince・Naruhito His Highness would be acceded to the throne of Tennou, I would express celebration with exerting my sincerity from the bottom of my heart.

Liberalism course for junior high school students, high school students, No18 -Human has the values in anybodies’ every life that make efforts to live good.-



Human has the values in anybodies’ every life that make efforts to live good.

Cherry Blossoms

Ⅰ.Let’s think that everybody make effort to live for good!

1. “Let’s make effort to live for the good” does not mean religious practice or moral actual practice. “Live for the good” is a state of mind that the religious people who has been trained over and over, or Kant has been reached, and it is not a scope that we ordinary persons of all living beings reach. However, I think that it is good  to have the time to think “Let’s make effort to live for the good”, like we remembered in our daily lives where there is many feeling which were being depressed, or grieving, or being angry. I call this autonomy.

2. And we define the value that describe in this section as “being useful for some object”.

3.Some objects are, ourselves, relatives, cousins, near persons such as relatives, schools, hospitals where we work, schools, government offices, organizations such as companies, and society after getting effects from one place to another, and world.

4. The object for junior high school students and high school students is from you and your parents and families to school. If you have a part-time job, it also includes. Here, first of all, please realize that each and every one of you has the absolute value of being a human resource who will create a society in the future. Everyone is studying. There are students doing club activities. We need effort with both. We need a continuing will that advance toward the object. In here, there is an each value, namely, the value that make an effort, the value that think, the value that show a continuing will which advance toward the object. You and your (student) bag are full of the value. You always carry its bag with you. And you yourself are a mass of value. Remember this always.

5. If there are teachers and friends who are going to destroy this value’s bag and your willingness as a person, you should never take on worries at all alone. Don’t blame yourself by the dilemma you think cannot be solved. Talk to your father or mother. Let’s have your father or mother consult with the principal. Let’s consult with the Board of Education. If there are friends or group who are going to hurt your personality, let’s break up from the friends and group resolutely. Please, don’t hurt yourself by yourself by being troubled about words or cruel treatments that hurt you. They are not your teacher or friends. A true teacher or friend is a person, in the case of a teacher, who is be able to share and sympathize with the values ​​that you have now and the effort that you do now, and the effort that you will be accumulating from now on, and in the case of a friend, is a person who is be able to share.

Ⅱ.My case

1.When I entered university, Japanese universities were in the midst of  disputes by students, and my university was no exception. If I think about it now, the university at that time is the time when the students were swung around by the empty theory of some impractical ideologues. I was no exception, too. I really regret this, and talk, there was a book called “Organization Theory Introduction” by Kanichi Kuroda in the book I read at that time. In the one passage in its book, there was a sentence that “people who are not engaged in production labor and labor do not create value”, and this gave me deep damage in the mind. And this way of thinking is nothing less than the way of thinking that brought about the purge and slaughter of people of mass knowledge group by countries and armed groups that are professing Marxism as science since the birth of the Soviet Union. At that time, I was a student who was attending to the Department of ‘Japanese language and Japanese literature’ of the Faculty of Education, and a student to be impressed with a book of Kiyoshi Oka, but I was ignorant. I who lost sight of my value, after all, dropped out of its university, and I’ve chosen to leave from its course.

2. The way of thinking that “people who do not engage in production labor and labor do not create value” leads to the same way of thinking which Mio Sugita, a member of the House of Representatives, who has recently become a problem, wrote in the August 2018 issue of ‘Shincho 45’, against the people of LGBT, as next, “They do not have a child, that is, they have not ‘productivity’”. Human have dignity and value as human. The fact itself that such descriptions and remarks come out, I think that it is possible to grasp the rigidity of Japanese society as an indicator to be shown on the left side in the case of Mr. Kanichi Kuroda and on the right side in the case of Mrs. Mio Sugita. However, not only “productivity”, but even if “productivity” is replaced with “being useful for some object” which this section placed the standard of value, the similar way of thinking is lying everywhere in the society. And when this make a group or mass, in a case of group, by calling someone a friend, it becomes an implicit agreement to show to be a member of its group that do behaviors who attack its friend, and in the case of mass, in addition in the case of a group, it becomes the unique identity of being a member of its group that attack and expel persons who have doubts about the status of its mass. Unfortunately, such groups exist still by a country unit in the world. However, the way of life for you still young is to think, ‘Be with the good’, and to live, even in such a society and the world. This is the only way to save yourself when you worry, I think.

3. I will keep talking. The talk alone which was only leaving the course is not interesting at all, and I don’t have the qualification to tell you something, I think. However, I have then graduated the Faculty of Economics of another university by correspondence education. After several years, I have made its graduation thesis a new book (Kindai-bungeishya, 2007 publish), entitled ”Marx Criticism, the concept of the individual and kind at Marx-Its critical consideration”. The standing position of this book is the one that take over the concept of “the individual and the kind”, which was told in the 19th century European thought world where Marx lived, to the present day of the 21st century, and I evaluate it by myself that it is occupying in its commensurate position of itself in the history of thought. And in this way I am talking liberalism to you.

4. Round up so as not to be long. The other day, a teacher who would has been achieved a professor’s and dean’s responsibilities of the university which I had attended at first would has been passed away. At its university, I received a tuition payment’s scholarship in the first school year, and the teacher who would has been passed away was the one of the three professors which would has been made an interview at that time. To be given a scholarship is, to say the least, because I was hoped that I would do my best to studies, therefore, I think that I have been sorry to drop out of its university. And for this unachieved consciousness that I did not achieve the expectations of the professors, in my heart, there was a consciousness that life was not connected. And, I attended the funeral that done both the teacher’s farewell ceremony and the first seven days’ Buddhist memorial ceremony, I have stated the apology and condolences with my whole heart. The graduates of the Faculty and department of subject gathered for its ceremony. And I was able to feel, with members, the sense that forgot for a long time, and at the same time, I was able to return to the interrupted course and regain the sense that the interrupted life was connected.

5.This is a lesson for everybody. Do not leave from your course. Please, live with the good.

Liberalism course for junior high school students, high school students, No17 ‐A request and asking about an expression that says the “Nation (=Country)” in NHK’s news and commentaries‐


A request and asking about an expression that says the “Nation (=Country)” in NHK’s news and commentaries

Cherry Blossoms

*This section is stating the five principles of the modern liberal states. Therefore, I make this section ‘Liberalism course for junior high school students, high school students, No17’.

1. Today, I will write in the form of request that one viewer asks about the expression “Nation (=Country)” where announcers and commentators are used in NHK news and commentaries.

2. I had done this request once in a sentence that had written an impression on the NHK’s some program.

3. In Japan, below the Cabinet there are administrative organizations of each Ministries and Offices. Announcers and commentators of NHK would lump together this administrative organizations of the Cabinet, each Ministries and Offices, and would express as the “Nation (=Country)”. Please change this, and if an incident or event is related to the administration, announcers and commentators’ everybody lump together its administrative agencies and don’t express as “Nation (=Country)” but please tell each name to viewers. When we compare by the case of lumping together as the “Nation (=Country)” and by the case of reporting until each Ministries and Offices, those who write news manuscripts and commentators are not allowed to make a false report, so it will take a little time to examine and check each responsible Ministries and Offices. However, if this will be established as the usual form of news coverage and commentary, it will not be a bothering time. And, when NHK’s people provide the news and commentaries relevant to Japanese administrative organizations, if there are internal regulations or customary practices in NHK which let those   administrative organizations lump together as “Nation (=Country)”, please change them.

4. When this attitude is established, Japan will change a little and we will become more wise viewers.

5. If adding it, it is not “Nation (Country) = administrative organization”. The nation (=country) is, that is, there are national people, a territory, and a territorial sea, and the state that the nation (= national people) is establishing sovereignty, freedom, and human rights in the territory and territorial sea which we call it a modern nation. The people, the territory, and the territorial waters are strictly present on a reality. Sovereignty, freedom and human rights are also not abstract concepts. It is an actual concept that shows truly the reality of what kind of country it is. Sovereignty is the existence of the national people who are the sovereigns, and is composed of the constitution, the army, the administrative organization, the economic society and its rules which the national people have. Freedom and human rights are also the  actual concepts that are composed of the constitution, the army, the administrative organization, the economic society and its rules which the national people have. In the modern time, a nation (country) is thus a nation that has the five real entities of national people, territory and territorial sea, sovereignty, freedom, and human rights. We call this the five principles of the modern nation.

6. However, there are not many nations (= countries) that have these five principles in the world. The People’s Republic of China and North Korea, too, prepare the form of a nation (=country). However, both countries lack freedom and human rights and both countries are also  dictatorship nations which controls people and society by those who belong to the dictator and its hierarchy. (Hierarchy: Organization which is divided into each class for dominating, for example: Chinese Communist Party and Korean Labor Party.) In these countries, the relationship between the administrative organization of the country and the party (the ruling party) does not differentiate, and the equation  “country = party organization = administrative organization” holds.

In light of this fact, it is possible to ask that the current NHK press stance may be staying at this level of consciousness, or not. Japan must more develop as a member of the world’s liberalism state.

7. As NHK, please be corresponding an above request and asking and I would want to ask for NHK’s sincere consideration to reform the press attitude and consciousness in the future, as a news agency of a liberalism nation.

Liberalism course for junior high school students, high school students 16 ‐Let’s think public decision making!‐




Let’s think public decision making!

Winter’s trees

This is No. 16 of `Liberalism course for junior high school students, high school students’ which is writing in Japanese. I would upload this.

 

Ⅰ.ublic

A.At first, we will define “public” which this subject use.

 

1.We will define “public” which this subject uses as “a problem which whole people of society have something to do with it or a matter which relates to whole people of the society”.

 

2.That is, the “public” which uses herein means, more than the words “public” and “official” that are contrasted with “private” in society, “more concrete problem and matter which are closely related to the way we live”. And, its “decision making” is the decision about ”a matter which relates to whole people of the society” or “a matter which whole people of the society have relations as a problem of oneselves”. And in here it contains consciousness that “I” is “public”.

 

3.In our words there is the word “I” together with “public” and “official”. And the word “public” or “official” and the word “I” are commonly thought that the content and area of the meaning that the word contains are different. What was able to this standing side by side of words closely relates to human history. Here we think of “I” first.

 

B.”I” who is an individual as a person

 

1.The consciousness of the Japanese “I” = “an individual as a person” have been existing from ancient times more than the era when ‘hiragana’, ‘kanji’ and ‘katakana’ had begun to use as means of human consciousness’s communicating. We think that it is good to think so. Since it began to use characters that are transmitted to the present, for example, “Manyoshu” exists. Here, the thought of individuals from ‘Tennou’ to ‘Sakimori’ and ‘Yomihitosirazu=this is a Waka that has not been knowing its author’s name’ are being expressed in depth of feeling. And there is Ki-no-Turayuki who wrote “Tosa nikki”. There is Sei-Shonagon who wrote “Makura-no-sousi”. There is Murasaki-Shikibu who wrote “Genji monogatari”. ‘Waka’ connected to ‘Haiku’, ‘Senryuu’, and ‘Monogatari’ and ‘Nikki’ connected to the ‘human sympathy books’, ‘comical story books’, ‘journey books’ of Edo era. When we view different fields, in the field of crafts, the swordsmith carved his name in the sword and was proud of his skill. Carpenter, painter, gardener, fabric master, dyer, craftsman and ceramist were proud of themselves skills of artisan, and left many architectures and works in posterity. Actors of Noh, Kyogen, and Kabuki will take over the name of the old actor. In addition, the martial warriors compete for their brave names, asking his way, raising school, further, tea ceremony and flower arrangement are handed down as ’tea ceremony’ and ’flower arrangement’ to present day. In addition, in the battle of the Middle Ages, the brave prided himself in proclaiming his name in a large voice. And people also enshrined a person who have worked hard and rendered remarkable achievements for the village and the area. In any of these, individual consciousness and thought are strongly reflected in the works and achievements produced in there, and we can say that each work and each achievement which each one searches are made by each individual’s consciousness (thought). This is the basics of the viewpoint for human consciousness and society in the liberal society.

 

C.”Public”

 

1.So how about “public”? Here we will take up “Nintoku-Tennou” who “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki” both Praise up “Holy Emperor”. The description of when and how the achievements of ancient times which Nintoku-Tennou had done are different in “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki”.

 

2.”Kojiki” writes in the section of “Nintoku-Tennou” as follows. I will copy it somewhat simpler. “In the era of this Tennou, five places’ “Be” as “Minasiro (= it have each name and it is like people and territory engaged in a certain occupation)” for empress and the respective prince were decided. In addition, making ‘Hatabito (=people who become naturalized to Japan) work, built a dike of ‘Manda’, a ‘Miyake (=cereal warehouse and land) of ‘Manda’, a ‘Wani’ pond, and a ‘Yosami’ pond, and digging up ‘Nanba’s Horie’ and connecting it to the sea, furthermore digging up inlet of ‘Obashi’ set a port of ‘Suminoe’. At this time, Tennou were climbed the mountain, looked around a country of the four sides, and were said to the following. “There is no (people’s cooking) smoke in the country. People of all are poor. Therefore, from now to three years, exempt the tax and labor of people.” By this, the main sanctuary house (main house of the palace) broke and it began to leak out rainwater. However, it was put as it was without being repaired. And the country came to fill with smoke of people’s cooking, so Tennou was thought that people became rich, and was ordered the tax and labor. By this, people flourished and were not to suffer to the tax and labor.

 

3.In “Nihon Shoki”, the descriptions above 2. write in the following order. a) When “Oujin-Tennou” was called to the demise, its time’s Crown Prince was trying to give the throne to ‘Osazaki-no-mikoto’ (= Nintoku-Tennou), however ‘Osazaki-no-mikoto’ was also declined. After this lasted three years, Crown Prince was called to the demise, ’Nintoku-Tennou’ was acceded to the throne. b) In the spring February of 4 years from acceding to the throne, Tennou was said to Tennou’s retainers, “There is no smoke that the people cook. Farmers are already poor”, and in March of the same year, Tennou was ordered to exempt the tax and labor of the people for 3 years. From this day, even if the palace’s fence collapsed and the roof’s kaya broke, they were not renewed. c) In the third year, the staple grains became good harvest, the people became rich, the cheerful voice was filled and a lot of cooking smoke came to stand up. d) (Nintoku, hereinafter the same) In April of 7 years, Tennou went up to the plateau and was seen a situation that smoke have occurred to a long distance, was talked with the Empress, that day, and was talked as follows. “Behold, it is for the farmers’ sake that the heaven stand a heaven’s monarch, therefore, the monarch bases on the farmers of its country. By this, the ancient holy monarch blames himself on thinking of its situation, when people, even alone, is starving and freezing. Now, the poverty of people is my poverty. It is that people become rich is that I become rich. People become rich, thereby it is not yet that the monarch is still poor.” In August of the same year, ‘Mibube (“Be”: see above) ‘ was established for one prince, and ‘Kazurakibe’ was established for ‘Empress’. e) In October of 10 years, Tennou was ordered the tax and labor to the people. f) In October of 11 years, digging the wilderness which is applicable to the suburbs on the north side of a palace, and drawing water from the river in the south, thereby people let it flow to the west sea. This waterway is called Horie. At this time, the levee of ‘Manda’ was built. g) In October of 12 years, digging a large waterway in the ‘Kurukuma-no-agata’ of ‘Yamasiro’, thereby people poured water to the paddy fields. h) In September of 13 years, ‘Manda-no-Miyake’ was built. In October, a ‘Wani’ pond was built and a dike of ‘Yokono’ was built. i) In November of ’14 years, people built a bridge across ‘Ikai-no-tu’. It says ‘Obashi’ that named there. In the same year, people built a big road from the southern gate in Kyoto to ‘Tazihi Mura’, and dug a large waterway at ‘Komuku’. The waterway pull water of ‘Ishikawa’, thereby people let ‘Kami-suzuka’, ‘Simo-suzuka’, ‘kami-toyoura’, ‘Simo-toyoura’ moisten and could get more than 40,000 rice fields.

 

4.Here, we do not make an issue of the difference between “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki”. What is essential is that the editor of “Nihon Shoki” that wrote the words of Ⅰ-C-3 as the words of “Nintoku-Tennou’ had explicitly the consciousness that say, ‘what is Public? ‘. It is our duties that we notice its consciousness. I will write that word again. “Behold, it is for the farmers’ sake that the heaven stand a heaven’s monarch, therefore, the monarch bases on the farmers of its country. By this, the ancient holy monarch blames himself on thinking of its situation, when people, even alone, is starving and freezing. Now, the poverty of people is my poverty. It is that people become rich is that I become rich. People become rich, thereby it is not yet that the monarch is still poor.”

 

5.We call ‘Public’ a society where people are rich. And, in modern times, we say it that the society where “people become rich”, at the same time, where “people are free” and where “the rights of people are establishing”. Here, I do not write “the society which people become rich and the country is rich”. It is because, there are bureaucratic organizations in the country since ancient times, it is not synonymous words that a situation which officials become rich and a situation which a country is rich. And because, if it is misunderstood that a situation which bureaucrats become rich is a situation which the country is rich, there are distortions in its society. Also, the form of the nations is merely one form of the society of its time to time.

 

D.Region of “I” who is contrasted with “Public”

 

1.The region of “I” saying here is different from “I” who is describing in the above B. The “I” mentioning in B is the one that born the region of “I” saying here, and also the one which gave rise to the region of “Public”. And, the consciousness of the modern “I” is proceeding to “I” which integrates (unifies) region of “I” who is contrasted with “Public” and the region of “Public”, the author of this blog is thinking so.

 

2.Speaking by Japanese history, when the system of the King to try to rule the Japanese Archipelago as a society with a single unit established, the region of ​​”I” who is contrasted with “Public” existed as the powerful clan’s regions. And the powerful clans tried to protect the self region of clanselves from this king and institution. And the new Yamato Court (Jinmu-Sujin Court) was established by Jinmu Tennou’s Eastern Expedition.

[Digression]:

As already I am clarifying in this blog, Jinmu‐Tennou and Sujin‐Tennou would be the same person, or parent and child, or, brothers. In my opinion, “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki” wrote the process of the Eastern Expedition as the achievement of Jinmu‐Tennou, and, wrote the period since Jinmu‐Tennou was acceded to the throne as the achievement of Sujin‐Tennou. I’m certain of it. However, “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki” describe the mausoleum hill of Jinmu‐Tennou and Sujin‐Tennou. When this mausoleum hill is proved to be the mausoleum of Jinmu‐Tennou, Jinmu‐Tennou and Sujin‐Tennou would be parent and child, or, brothers. I will add to write a little more. Jinmu‐Tennou was taken over the dynasty of Nigihayahi no mikoto (= Ohnamuchi no Kami = Ohkunimushi no mikoto = Kougen‐Tennou) who would be a same imperial line as Jinmu‐Tennou himself and was built a new dynasty (This is a Jinmu-Sujin Court. If we think that one era of one person’s Tennou would have two era names, it is easy to understand this Jinmu-Sujin Court.). Therefore, when we think of the fact of history, it has consistency that Sujin‐Tennou was respected Japanese deities who would be the ancestors of Sujin‐Tennou and Nigihayahi no mikoto. Junior high school students and high school students who are reading this, please let it beat into yours heads that Jinmu‐Tennou would be been a person who existed strictly as a Tennou, not a myth or a legendary Tennou as many scholars had told. However, current schools do not teach a history like this. You have to learn what you are taught at school and then think of on your own.

 

3.Next, in times from ‘Jinmu-Sujin Court’ to ‘Taika no kaishin’, the ‘Ohjin Court’ was established and fell, and it was succeeded to ‘Keitai Court’, and there was a battle between ‘Mono no be’ clans and ‘Soga’ clans. And then, ‘Soga’ clans fell by ‘Taika no kaishin’. The fundamental structure of society of this era, we can think it to have existed as the regions of the powerful clans who were still trying to protect their regions of clanselves against the request for control and order of the Tennou who had stronger power than previous era. It is the same structure as the early ancient times. And, by ‘Taika no kaishin (Ixtusi no hen 645)’, Japan was coming to show the appearance of a nation which had ‘Rituryo (=laws and ordinances)’. Their laws and ordinances were Ohmi-ryo 668, Family registers making 670, Asuka-kiyomigahara-ryo 689, Taiho-rituryo 701, and Youro-rituryo 757. The consciousness that let perform these reforms is, certainly, the consciousness of “Public” that the editor of “Nihon Shoki” that we saw in 3-d and 4 described as the Nintoku‐Tennou’s words. And, this consciousness of “Public” became the “Public” which Yamato Court aimed until ‘Syouen’ appeared by a law of ”Konden-einen-sizaihou (743)’. At the same time, what formed the region of “I” is the ‘Syouen’.

 

4.”Syouen” arised by setting the land that was under the control of the powerful clans before ‘Taika no kaishin’ at the ‘Kouden (=public land)’, in addition, by allowing the land-pioneer to possess the land that newly opened. And its transition brought about a fierce battle over the land (and its products) in Japan, and converged to the Tokugawa Baku-han systems. And the point to keep in mind here is that the Tokugawa Bakuhu got the legal basis which could consist its Baku-han systems through the procedure of the ‘Rituryou’ of the Yamato court. When we say what kind of mean this is, when Ieyasu Tokugawa established the ‘Bakuhu’ at 1603, he was appointed to the “Seiitaisyougun (This position can be considered as taking over the ‘Four roads Shogun’ who were dispatched to the Hokuriku, Tokai, West (Harima, Kibi), Tanba at the time of ‘Soujin Court’, we think so.)” and the ‘Udaijin’ which was one of the highest Executive of Court, from the Court. Ieyasu can obtain the military presiding rights all over Japan by ‘Seii-taisyougun’s position’. At the same time, he also gained the appointing rights of the ‘Daimyo’, ‘Syoumyou’ of the various ‘Han’, which is the military organization. At the same time, Ieyasu Tokugawa was also the ‘Udaijin’ of   Court, so his administration obtained a legal (law of Rituryou) ground that his administrations were governing as the ‘Udaijin’ of the Court. This is the basic structure of the Edo Era. In addition, Ieyasu promulgated “Kinchuu-narabini-kugesyohaxtuto (1615)” which Zen-kanpaku Akizane Nijyou, Shogun Hidetada Tokugawa, and Zen-shogun Ieyasu Tokugawa signed jointly, then Ieyasut kept the Tennou completely away from politics. However, even among such trends of history, the Tennou was kept its existence as the successor to the Tennou’s throne, Japan has got the Tokugawa Era’s end.

 

E.From Meiji to the defeat of the great war ahead

 

1.Due to the ‘Meiji Ishin’ (=Meiji Restoration), Japan made the Constitution which Meiji-Tennou was declared and promulgated, and the Japanese people became the Tennou’s ‘Sinmin (= subjects)’. Also, Tennou was gained the governance right of Japan and the command right of the Army and Navy. When I read this Constitution (former Constitution = “the Constitution of the Empire of Japan”) again and tell about an impression thinking frankly now, this Constitution can be said that it had been becoming to the wartime’s Constitution that was conscious of Japan’s imminent crisis and that it had become to the Constitution that responded with crisis consciousness of then people. It may be said that this reflected the sense of tension placed by Japan at the end of Edo Era and the beginning of Meiji Period. Under this constitution, Japan could win when the confronting country was Qing Dynasty, Romanov Dynasty and so on, and when the region was a limited war. However, in the case of a modern state where the confronting countries were the United States of America or the UK, especially in the all-out war with the United States, Japan saw the overwhelming difference in industrial power of the both country, therefore, Japan had defeated.

 

2.Why Japan lost, why Japan had the reckless war, why Japan made the reckless military operations, I think of. However, since I am not a military officer, I cannot know the consciousness of a general officer who is the current staff developing the war strategies and military operations of the SDF. However, when I take a view of the Tennou system from the ancient era to the Meiji times, there is an impression that the consciousness of the so-called ‘Daihonei’ and military officers before the war might have been something near to the consciousness of the ‘Seiigun’. It is to send the forces at another country, it is to procure the foods and other necessaries locally by the sending forces, and it is to govern the another country by the sending forces. Today’s battles, even regional battles by the United States, cannot easily win the victory. Weapons to overwhelm the enemy, logistics, supply are necessary. And Japan should not isolate.

 

F.Today

 

1.Due to the defeat in World War II, Japan obtained the current “The Constitution of Japan”, following the procedure of revising the former Constitution. In this Constitution, Tennou would be become the symbol, and the Japanese people became a person who is a sovereign. “The Constitution of Japan” is an excellent constitution that writes a subject of the Constitution as the Japanese people who has a sovereignty to each person.

 

2.At the present age, the region of “I” which is contrasted with “Public” that describes in the D, have changed to enterprises (companies) which are collecting money (capital), and using its money, thereby creating the goods, facilities and businesses. Then, the enterprises (companies) perform businesses organizally that aim to gain the profits by providing the people of society that seek the goods and services enterprise-selves create. We call this enterprise (company) “a juridical person” by the law. There are various enterprises in the juridical person. Companies that are the private enterprise aiming to gain the profits, in addition, Public corporation, Corporation (a corporate juridical person), Foundation (Nonprofit corporation), NPO corporation, Government finance, Fund (Foundation), Depository, Bank (Bank of Japan), Public corporation, Organization, Association, Alliance society, Troupe, Association (Society), Agency (Corporation), Chamber (Conference・Council), Union, there are many. Therefore, here we will represent each association and organization that includes private enterprises conveniently by one name, and make it an “enterprise”. Here, each private enterprise, association and organization becomes enterprise 1, enterprise 2, enterprise 3, ——-, enterprise ∞ respectively. These enterprises’ definition is, because even non-profit corporations also have to make profits for the survival of them, so we will use the same contents that mentioned earlier in this section and do it as ‘The definition 1 of enterprise’.

 

3.At today, it is said that the enterprise is ‘the vessel of society’. And enterprises that cannot benefit society cannot survive. This is the definition 2 of the enterprise. Here we will define the enterprise once more again.

 

Enterprise

Definition 1: Enterprise (company) is an organization or association which is collecting money (capital), and using its money, thereby creating the goods, facilities and businesses. Then, an enterprise (company) performs businesses organizally that aim to gain the profits by providing the people of society that seek the goods and services enterprise-self create. And, an enterprise (company) repeats this working (business) by year through year throughout the year.

 

Definition 2: The enterprise is ‘the vessel of society’, and an enterprise that cannot benefit society cannot survive.

 

4.Then, how about an individual? Nowadays, if we upload our current situation, opinions, and performance which we want to appeal to our own page such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and other social networking services (SNS) or WordPress, people can read and watch it. And people can write their opinions or impressions at there. Such individual is exactly a character who he and she is in Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and if a young mother uploads her child’s lunch box on there it is a kind of self-assertion that she projects her world through a child’s lunch box, we can say. There are also the crimes here, the infections by the virus are always accompanied, and here is not necessarily a safe place, but the individual’s world goes to be getting rid of the bulkheads that had been between the world. This continues in the future. It can be said that the internet realizes the role of “Anywhere door” of Doraemon. Here, a region of the individual and the world are very close, but, even if saying so, a region of individual who expresses in there can be finally there after being evaluated from the world. Let’s think of such an individual’s further private region. There is little thing to hide at there, this is not limited to the internet, but especially, the characteristics of the person become to its person’s personality on the internet, and by expressing it on the internet, the circle of empathy which obtains at there becomes more bigger so as to be incomparable with the world without the internet. The good quality stories such as ‘The story of fight against illness’, ‘The story of strenuous efforts’ and ‘The success story’ will surely call for people’s empathy. Conversely, people who have something to conceal under their contents that they represent or express on the internet are phishing scammers or criminals who plot the evil deeds, it can be said that they are the human beings of class who cannot live in the public world. And, in modern times, the class of people who have excessive money or power, for avoiding tax or hiding income, possess an account in a tax avoidance area called ‘Tax Haven’ and this class people have the ‘private regions’ which are hidden, and it may be said that it is thought that they often have the hidden regions of private. But, what we should not forget here is to have money is necessary. Even now and old days, we can do nothing without money. And, by using its money, such as we write by ‘The definition 2 of enterprise’ in the 3 of this section, to be of use to the society, we increase more money and we should also become rich ourselves.

 

Ⅱ.An assignment

 

1.From the description of the Ⅰ, I think that it comes to be able to understand why excellent young people choose the way of entrepreneurs in the USA. If you cannot understand it is an assignment. I do not mention the roles of people who affiliate with the work of the Japanese Cabinet, ministries, prefectures, municipalities, but think of their roles, please think still further.

 

Ⅲ.The secession from IWC (International Whaling Commission)

 

A.Decision of the Japanese Government

 

1.The Japanese government decided to withdraw from the International Whaling Commission (IWC) and to resume commercial whaling from July 2019, by the Council of Cabinet decided on 25 December of last year (2018), and on the following 26th, Suga Chief Cabinet Secretary announced. It says to limit the area of commercial whaling to Japan’s Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone.

 

a.Was this decision made through public discussions and decision making process in Japan?

 

b.Also, is this decision make people rich, conforming to the definition of “public” which we discussed by above the I – C – 5?

 

‘Public’

Definition 1: We say ‘Public’ is the society which people are rich, free and people are establishing people-selves rights.

 

c.And, does this decision make our own flesh and blood of our own lesson that Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in a process leading to World War II and isolated and defeated?

 

d.Then, does this decision conform to the spirit of “conservation of nature, protection of animals” which is the trend of good sense of people of the world?

 

e.Still further, does the ‘food culture’ which is said in the town become to a reason for resuming commercial whaling?

 

f.Each are all no.

 

Ⅳ.An assignment 2

 

1.Please think about how we should perform the decision making that are public and its process.

 

 

Cancer immunotherapy formulation · Opdivo




Cancer immunotherapy formulation · Opdivo

 

Sky of October

 

Kyoto University of Japan, Special professor Tasuku Honjyo would be received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Prize. About “Discovery of ‘PD-1 antibody’ that utilizes immune cells which human body have original for cancer treatment”, and this is the reason that Honjyo professor would be received the Prize, this article is describing its mechanism. This article is a part of Japanese version’s blog of April 23, 2018, and its blog states opinions to a report which a securities analyst performed rating on April 17, 2018 for the stock price of Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. in Japan. This article would introduce Honjyo professor’s achievements and introduce the challenges of cancer immunotherapy which is the current research subject.

 

A.Opdivo (Nivolumab)

 

1.Opdivo (Nivolumab) is an anti-cancer drug developed by Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. together Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (Hereafter, abbreviated as BMY Company). What is revolutionary is that in the past anti-cancer treatment was mainly based on resection and chemotherapy or scientific therapy, but Opdivo (Nivolumab) is an immunotherapy that helps the human body inherent immunity. This is the first formulation in the world to be made by “PD-1 antibody” which Kyoto University’s Professor Tasuku Honjyo would be discovered.

 

2.When cancer cells are formed, the human immune cells (killer) T cells attack cancer cells and are coming to keep the human body a normal state. At this time, a substance (receptor) called “PD-1” is expressed on the T cell surface. However, in order to protect cancer cellselves from T cells, cancer cells express specific substances (ligands: substances that specifically bind to specific receptors) on the surface of cancer cells, bind T cells, cancer cells try to take in T cells. The ‘ligand’ which this cancer cells issue is a substance called “PD-L1, PD-L2”. And then, when the “PD-1” receptor of the T cell binds to the ligand “PD-L1, PD-L2″ of the cancer cell, the T cell stops attacking the cancer cell, allow growth of cancer.

 

3.”PD-1 antibody” prevents T cell receptor “PD-1” from binding to ligand “PD-L1, PD-L2” of cancer cells and makes its original immune function of T cells exert. This is called immunotherapy. However, at this time, when T cells head for other organs and cells, side effects of autoimmune diseases occur.

 

B.Issues of Cancer Immunotherapy

 

1. The following is a summary of the research subject of “PD-1” project team of Kyoto University Graduate School, School of Medicine, Immune and medicine laboratory (Honjyo laboratory).

 

a.Response efficiency of the therapeutic effect with the ’PD-1 antibody’ alone is 20 to 30%.

 

b.Depending on cancer type, combined use of “CTLA-4 antibody” dramatically improves the response efficiency of the treatment to 50~60%.

note;

“CTLA-4 antibody”; There is a substance called “CTLA-4” that suppresses the action of T cell which exists as a receptor of T cell similar to PD-1 receptor. “CTLA-4 antibody” binds to this CTLA-4 receptor, suppresses the action of CTLA-4, and activates the action of T cells. The PD-1 receptor binds to and is taken up by cancer cells, but the CTLA-4 receptor binds to macrophages or substances called CD80, CD86 of dendritic cells and becomes inactive. This “CTLA-4 antibody” was commercialized as Yervoy (ipilimumab) by BMY Company.

 

c.About patient who is unresponsive to “PD-1 antibody” therapy, this cause hasn’t been discovering yet.

 

d.The mechanism of response / nonresponse to “PD-1 antibody” and the development and exploration of biomarkers to distinguish it are important.

 

e.Immune responses of PD-1 are deeply involved in metabolism and are important for maintaining the fundamental homeostasis of life.

 

f.From now on, it is necessary to understand the principle of life phenomena from a new viewpoint fusing immunity and metabolism.