About the evaluation of Dr. Karl Popper against the Hegel’s dialectic
＊ This sentence is a republishing one that was written on July 28, 2013 (Japanese version).
A. Hegel’s dialectic in “Conjectures and Refutations” of Dr. Karl Popper
α. It is first, about miscellaneous thoughts.
- In Dr. Karl Popper, Hegel compares with Kant, his position occupies a bad one. It is the completely opposite evaluation more than it says that his position is bad. Kant is clearly stated, and it let people who read it consents. On the other hand, about the point at issue of Hegel, it is thought that a lucidity of Doctor as the critic will be ideological problem rather than it says that it is indistinctness.
- As this cause, next thing can be thought. Firstly, what Kant had done is the philosophy that puts self’s thinking as a basis when he attempts to recognize an object, and it is that Dr. Popper has been also inherited this position. Second, that of Hegel is the self-completing (self-accomplishing) philosophy. From Germany, Marx and Hitler had come out. Marx is a Hegel’s student, and as for Hitler, the concept of self-completing ‘The Absolute Being’ of Hegel might let capture him fanatically. Hitler was thought as an enemy of a liberal society.
- I am always thinking. Before the times of Hitler (1889-1945), there was Max Weber (1864-1920) of the philosopher. The philosopher such as the star which shined was alive in Europe. However, they could not prevent the emergence of Hitler. I often think why this had occurred. Hegel called Napoleon the spirit of world. Beethoven wrote the symphony No3. Against Hitler too, because people were manipulated by his words, his supporters might be unexpectedly many. And, it is said that he was excellent in making speeches, and he played music of Wagner (1813-1883) before his speech, and he made the atmosphere that invited the audience to enthusiasm. However, Nazis’s act, if it is still called politics in today, it is the politics that deny a human being and we must not permit the appearance of a person like Hitler at any time. That is the target of the battle that we must face with full power. Why would philosophers have been powerless against such situations?
- Dr. Popper (1902-1994), too, was while living. As for the book, “The Logic of Scientific Discovery” was written in 1934 and “The Open Society and its Enemies” was published in 1945. A reason that Dr. Popper has been lacked lucidity against Hegel, Hegel was a German philosopher, and it is thought that it may not be able to deny that there was tense thought that the Jewish people had been accommodated to the concentration camps. Many Jewish people were involved in the October Revolution in Russian. As its representative, we will be able to pick a person called Leon Trotsky. He had been assassinated in Mexico by assassinators of Stalin (1940). Also in those days, communism had been scattering illusions on philosophers.
- Dr. Popper is more favorable to Marx than Hegel. I’m thinking that the world of Marx is the world of the fiction. I write it later, but there is a description to accept that a person draws the world of the fiction, in a Doctor too, through Kant. If this is to draw the fiction world, like Marx, in our daily world, we must refuse it. The cause that a lot of people of the egg of the scientist having the high educational background participated in the acts of terrorism of Omu Shinrikyo may exist in the place like this reason. Again, it is obvious that the fictional world where is made such a religion by the fiction is unacceptable.
β．It is Hegel’s dialectic
- About the dialectic, please refer to an article on December 31, 2011 (Japanese version) ‘A. About the dialectic’ in “Law and Justice 6”.
- The Doctor mentions Hegel and was explained like next. ‘Dialectics is the theory that insists that something one, especially human’s thought, develop by a method that is characterized by what is called “dialectical three steps growth” saying ‘ These – Antithese – Synthese ‘. This explanation is an error. This is rather the one that the Doctor has been spoken about “the development of dialectics” that, in particular, was prescribed by Engels of the times of Marx.
- Philosophy of Hegel is the self-confirming philosophy. The self faces with the others, the other things, the other world, and establishes one self and goes. He called this way the dialectic that succeeds to the dialogue method of the ancient Greek philosophy. It is a method of Socrates and is the method of “Conjectures and Refutations” of Dr. Popper, too. In this way, the self understands own-self and the world and develops both congruently. This is the skeleton of the philosophy of Hegel.
The self: In the case of Hegel, it is also a spirit. The act of human being is the act of each human being’s sprit, we may (can) understand that self is sprit and nature. I’m doing so.
- However, Hegel says, “The absolute being is the spirit.” (Enzyklopädie, 384) Also he says “The absolute spirit”. (Ib. 385) A little difficult words line up but several words Hegel’s saying exist here. ” The objective state of sprit and the ideal state of sprit, that is, the unification with its concept, when it exists absolutely, and when it is with the state of unification that produce the self forever, and when the spirit is absolute truth state, this is the absolute spirit.” (Ib. 385) This is the arrival point of self-conclusion type philosophy of Hegel. I’m being a state that I cannot understand this “the absolute being ” and ” the absolute spirit “.
- Therefore I quote Hegel one more. “The spirit can endure negation of own individual immediateness, that is, infinite pain. In other words, the spirit support affirmatively oneself against this negativity and can be the same one for oneself. This possibility is the universality that one spirit shows that oneself seeks ‘the confronting (facing) – the self – the affirming’ “. (Ib. 382) When the self is the spirit, we know that this is the world in Japan that has been preached as an ultimate state of the realization of the Zen, and as mental attitude of every days of the excellent ‘samurai’, too. However, when the self is the nature, we know that an equation saying ‘the self = the natural = the absolute being’ is equal cannot establish. Therefore I decided to call this absolute being ‘the arrogance of thought’, ‘the disrespect of consideration’. And also, this method of recognizing of ‘the absolute being’ which Hegel used is denied, even if we say from the dialectic (dialogue method) which had been the beginning of his self-awareness. Did he know this? It is not able to know now. But it is interesting when we think that he had been noticing it. He left such a problem for us of the coming age. But let’s move forward without stopping.
- Hegel’s achievement is in the point to be the person who was conscious that he introduces labor to the philosophy. “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations” of Adam Smith was published in 1776. It thinks that he was inspired by this. Hesiodos of ancient Greece had preached that it is diligent in “Works and Days”. The labor is talked in the Bible too. From ancient times, people have been understanding that the labor is the one which brings wealth to the people by obtaining its produce and product of useful fortune. Hegel had incorporated this labor which is the source producing wealth with works and as the source which produces the world, in the philosophical world.
- Since then the object that the philosophy treat becomes the world. Until then, the philosopher had ascertained his existence and the world, by his thinking. A typical example is enough to remember that Descartes said: ‘Je pense, donc je suis’ (= ‘I think, so I am’). In the same way, the artist inspires one’s personality to one’s work. Politician aims to make a society which people are able to have worth which live in life. A scholar makes one’s academic achievement and effective policy proposal the evidence of one’s existence. By the same way as this, a decoration craftsman of the Japanese Edo era makes the workmanship of his ornamental ‘kanzasi’ the evidence of his existence, and a modern reinforcing steel rod worker is able to see the proof of his work in building that completed. It is Hegel that made this world possible. We must not forget this point which is his achievement, even if how he may be disparaged.
γ. Dr. Popper’s method
- Dr. Popper was inherited the method of Kant. The Doctor is described, ‘The intelligence does not derive the law from nature but imposes the law to nature.’ (“Conjectures and Refutations”, ‘Copernicus-like Turn of Kant’) And, about this, Doctor is described that this is a formulation by Kant. This description is also the one that should say ‘the arrogance of the thought’. It is not exactly correct. It is only when nature is behaving its own behavior or when it is possible to reason its behavior we can describe the natural phenomenon as the law or the hypothesis. Kant has written that ‘all things that occur, even if it will be saying hypothetically, are inevitable’. (” Critique of Pure Reason”, ‘Refutation against the idealism’, Japan Iwanami Bunko first volume P307) All the hypothesis and the philosophical all structures which are made hypothetically cannot be acceptable all their assertions (words).
δ. Error of Marx
- The world of Marx is the world of the fiction. The society which assumes the homogeneity of labor and the coessentiality of society is assembled.
- About the homogeneity of labor, if it is suppose that 10,000 persons are here with order of A B C D– – – -. That these people to work, that is, labor (Marx called this labor “outlay of human labor force of the physiological meaning”.) are placed equally in unit A of the same price. This is the basis of Marx’s economic theory. On this basis, the exchange theory that changed unit A to labor hours have been built up.
- Only saying easily, too, we find that Marx truncated the significance that a human being lives for variously, and he composed his theory. And he had been approving such a truncation in a draft of his ‘doctoral thesis’. There is no reason society thus fabricated is freedom.
- In the article, the quotation of Dr. Popper, Hegel and Kant is translated from Japanese to English. Please consult the ones that are published in each country.