Let’s think public decision making!
This is No. 16 of `Liberalism course for junior high school students, high school students’ which is writing in Japanese. I would upload this.
Ａ．At first, we will define “public” which this subject use.
１．We will define “public” which this subject uses as “a problem which whole people of society have something to do with it or a matter which relates to whole people of the society”.
２．That is, the “public” which uses herein means, more than the words “public” and “official” that are contrasted with “private” in society, “more concrete problem and matter which are closely related to the way we live”. And, its “decision making” is the decision about ”a matter which relates to whole people of the society” or “a matter which whole people of the society have relations as a problem of oneselves”. And in here it contains consciousness that “I” is “public”.
３．In our words there is the word “I” together with “public” and “official”. And the word “public” or “official” and the word “I” are commonly thought that the content and area of the meaning that the word contains are different. What was able to this standing side by side of words closely relates to human history. Here we think of “I” first.
Ｂ．”I” who is an individual as a person
１．The consciousness of the Japanese “I” = “an individual as a person” have been existing from ancient times more than the era when ‘hiragana’, ‘kanji’ and ‘katakana’ had begun to use as means of human consciousness’s communicating. We think that it is good to think so. Since it began to use characters that are transmitted to the present, for example, “Manyoshu” exists. Here, the thought of individuals from ‘Tennou’ to ‘Sakimori’ and ‘Yomihitosirazu=this is a Waka that has not been knowing its author’s name’ are being expressed in depth of feeling. And there is Ki-no-Turayuki who wrote “Tosa nikki”. There is Sei-Shonagon who wrote “Makura-no-sousi”. There is Murasaki-Shikibu who wrote “Genji monogatari”. ‘Waka’ connected to ‘Haiku’, ‘Senryuu’, and ‘Monogatari’ and ‘Nikki’ connected to the ‘human sympathy books’, ‘comical story books’, ‘journey books’ of Edo era. When we view different fields, in the field of crafts, the swordsmith carved his name in the sword and was proud of his skill. Carpenter, painter, gardener, fabric master, dyer, craftsman and ceramist were proud of themselves skills of artisan, and left many architectures and works in posterity. Actors of Noh, Kyogen, and Kabuki will take over the name of the old actor. In addition, the martial warriors compete for their brave names, asking his way, raising school, further, tea ceremony and flower arrangement are handed down as ’tea ceremony’ and ’flower arrangement’ to present day. In addition, in the battle of the Middle Ages, the brave prided himself in proclaiming his name in a large voice. And people also enshrined a person who have worked hard and rendered remarkable achievements for the village and the area. In any of these, individual consciousness and thought are strongly reflected in the works and achievements produced in there, and we can say that each work and each achievement which each one searches are made by each individual’s consciousness (thought). This is the basics of the viewpoint for human consciousness and society in the liberal society.
１．So how about “public”? Here we will take up “Nintoku-Tennou” who “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki” both Praise up “Holy Emperor”. The description of when and how the achievements of ancient times which Nintoku-Tennou had done are different in “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki”.
２．”Kojiki” writes in the section of “Nintoku-Tennou” as follows. I will copy it somewhat simpler. “In the era of this Tennou, five places’ “Be” as “Minasiro (= it have each name and it is like people and territory engaged in a certain occupation)” for empress and the respective prince were decided. In addition, making ‘Hatabito (=people who become naturalized to Japan) work, built a dike of ‘Manda’, a ‘Miyake (=cereal warehouse and land) of ‘Manda’, a ‘Wani’ pond, and a ‘Yosami’ pond, and digging up ‘Nanba’s Horie’ and connecting it to the sea, furthermore digging up inlet of ‘Obashi’ set a port of ‘Suminoe’. At this time, Tennou were climbed the mountain, looked around a country of the four sides, and were said to the following. “There is no (people’s cooking) smoke in the country. People of all are poor. Therefore, from now to three years, exempt the tax and labor of people.” By this, the main sanctuary house (main house of the palace) broke and it began to leak out rainwater. However, it was put as it was without being repaired. And the country came to fill with smoke of people’s cooking, so Tennou was thought that people became rich, and was ordered the tax and labor. By this, people flourished and were not to suffer to the tax and labor.
３．In “Nihon Shoki”, the descriptions above 2. write in the following order. a) When “Oujin-Tennou” was called to the demise, its time’s Crown Prince was trying to give the throne to ‘Osazaki-no-mikoto’ (= Nintoku-Tennou), however ‘Osazaki-no-mikoto’ was also declined. After this lasted three years, Crown Prince was called to the demise, ’Nintoku-Tennou’ was acceded to the throne. b) In the spring February of 4 years from acceding to the throne, Tennou was said to Tennou’s retainers, “There is no smoke that the people cook. Farmers are already poor”, and in March of the same year, Tennou was ordered to exempt the tax and labor of the people for 3 years. From this day, even if the palace’s fence collapsed and the roof’s kaya broke, they were not renewed. c) In the third year, the staple grains became good harvest, the people became rich, the cheerful voice was filled and a lot of cooking smoke came to stand up. d) (Nintoku, hereinafter the same) In April of 7 years, Tennou went up to the plateau and was seen a situation that smoke have occurred to a long distance, was talked with the Empress, that day, and was talked as follows. “Behold, it is for the farmers’ sake that the heaven stand a heaven’s monarch, therefore, the monarch bases on the farmers of its country. By this, the ancient holy monarch blames himself on thinking of its situation, when people, even alone, is starving and freezing. Now, the poverty of people is my poverty. It is that people become rich is that I become rich. People become rich, thereby it is not yet that the monarch is still poor.” In August of the same year, ‘Mibube (“Be”: see above) ‘ was established for one prince, and ‘Kazurakibe’ was established for ‘Empress’. e) In October of 10 years, Tennou was ordered the tax and labor to the people. f) In October of 11 years, digging the wilderness which is applicable to the suburbs on the north side of a palace, and drawing water from the river in the south, thereby people let it flow to the west sea. This waterway is called Horie. At this time, the levee of ‘Manda’ was built. g) In October of 12 years, digging a large waterway in the ‘Kurukuma-no-agata’ of ‘Yamasiro’, thereby people poured water to the paddy fields. h) In September of 13 years, ‘Manda-no-Miyake’ was built. In October, a ‘Wani’ pond was built and a dike of ‘Yokono’ was built. i) In November of ’14 years, people built a bridge across ‘Ikai-no-tu’. It says ‘Obashi’ that named there. In the same year, people built a big road from the southern gate in Kyoto to ‘Tazihi Mura’, and dug a large waterway at ‘Komuku’. The waterway pull water of ‘Ishikawa’, thereby people let ‘Kami-suzuka’, ‘Simo-suzuka’, ‘kami-toyoura’, ‘Simo-toyoura’ moisten and could get more than 40,000 rice fields.
４．Here, we do not make an issue of the difference between “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki”. What is essential is that the editor of “Nihon Shoki” that wrote the words of Ⅰ-C-3 as the words of “Nintoku-Tennou’ had explicitly the consciousness that say, ‘what is Public? ‘. It is our duties that we notice its consciousness. I will write that word again. “Behold, it is for the farmers’ sake that the heaven stand a heaven’s monarch, therefore, the monarch bases on the farmers of its country. By this, the ancient holy monarch blames himself on thinking of its situation, when people, even alone, is starving and freezing. Now, the poverty of people is my poverty. It is that people become rich is that I become rich. People become rich, thereby it is not yet that the monarch is still poor.”
５．We call ‘Public’ a society where people are rich. And, in modern times, we say it that the society where “people become rich”, at the same time, where “people are free” and where “the rights of people are establishing”. Here, I do not write “the society which people become rich and the country is rich”. It is because, there are bureaucratic organizations in the country since ancient times, it is not synonymous words that a situation which officials become rich and a situation which a country is rich. And because, if it is misunderstood that a situation which bureaucrats become rich is a situation which the country is rich, there are distortions in its society. Also, the form of the nations is merely one form of the society of its time to time.
Ｄ．Region of “I” who is contrasted with “Public”
１．The region of “I” saying here is different from “I” who is describing in the above B. The “I” mentioning in B is the one that born the region of “I” saying here, and also the one which gave rise to the region of “Public”. And, the consciousness of the modern “I” is proceeding to “I” which integrates (unifies) region of “I” who is contrasted with “Public” and the region of “Public”, the author of this blog is thinking so.
２．Speaking by Japanese history, when the system of the King to try to rule the Japanese Archipelago as a society with a single unit established, the region of ”I” who is contrasted with “Public” existed as the powerful clan’s regions. And the powerful clans tried to protect the self region of clanselves from this king and institution. And the new Yamato Court (Jinmu-Sujin Court) was established by Jinmu Tennou’s Eastern Expedition.
As already I am clarifying in this blog, Jinmu‐Tennou and Sujin‐Tennou would be the same person, or parent and child, or, brothers. In my opinion, “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki” wrote the process of the Eastern Expedition as the achievement of Jinmu‐Tennou, and, wrote the period since Jinmu‐Tennou was acceded to the throne as the achievement of Sujin‐Tennou. I’m certain of it. However, “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki” describe the mausoleum hill of Jinmu‐Tennou and Sujin‐Tennou. When this mausoleum hill is proved to be the mausoleum of Jinmu‐Tennou, Jinmu‐Tennou and Sujin‐Tennou would be parent and child, or, brothers. I will add to write a little more. Jinmu‐Tennou was taken over the dynasty of Nigihayahi no mikoto (= Ohnamuchi no Kami = Ohkunimushi no mikoto = Kougen‐Tennou) who would be a same imperial line as Jinmu‐Tennou himself and was built a new dynasty (This is a Jinmu-Sujin Court. If we think that one era of one person’s Tennou would have two era names, it is easy to understand this Jinmu-Sujin Court.). Therefore, when we think of the fact of history, it has consistency that Sujin‐Tennou was respected Japanese deities who would be the ancestors of Sujin‐Tennou and Nigihayahi no mikoto. Junior high school students and high school students who are reading this, please let it beat into yours heads that Jinmu‐Tennou would be been a person who existed strictly as a Tennou, not a myth or a legendary Tennou as many scholars had told. However, current schools do not teach a history like this. You have to learn what you are taught at school and then think of on your own.
３．Next, in times from ‘Jinmu-Sujin Court’ to ‘Taika no kaishin’, the ‘Ohjin Court’ was established and fell, and it was succeeded to ‘Keitai Court’, and there was a battle between ‘Mono no be’ clans and ‘Soga’ clans. And then, ‘Soga’ clans fell by ‘Taika no kaishin’. The fundamental structure of society of this era, we can think it to have existed as the regions of the powerful clans who were still trying to protect their regions of clanselves against the request for control and order of the Tennou who had stronger power than previous era. It is the same structure as the early ancient times. And, by ‘Taika no kaishin (Ixtusi no hen 645)’, Japan was coming to show the appearance of a nation which had ‘Rituryo (=laws and ordinances)’. Their laws and ordinances were Ohmi-ryo 668, Family registers making 670, Asuka-kiyomigahara-ryo 689, Taiho-rituryo 701, and Youro-rituryo 757. The consciousness that let perform these reforms is, certainly, the consciousness of “Public” that the editor of “Nihon Shoki” that we saw in 3-d and 4 described as the Nintoku‐Tennou’s words. And, this consciousness of “Public” became the “Public” which Yamato Court aimed until ‘Syouen’ appeared by a law of ”Konden-einen-sizaihou (743)’. At the same time, what formed the region of “I” is the ‘Syouen’.
４．”Syouen” arised by setting the land that was under the control of the powerful clans before ‘Taika no kaishin’ at the ‘Kouden (=public land)’, in addition, by allowing the land-pioneer to possess the land that newly opened. And its transition brought about a fierce battle over the land (and its products) in Japan, and converged to the Tokugawa Baku-han systems. And the point to keep in mind here is that the Tokugawa Bakuhu got the legal basis which could consist its Baku-han systems through the procedure of the ‘Rituryou’ of the Yamato court. When we say what kind of mean this is, when Ieyasu Tokugawa established the ‘Bakuhu’ at 1603, he was appointed to the “Seiitaisyougun (This position can be considered as taking over the ‘Four roads Shogun’ who were dispatched to the Hokuriku, Tokai, West (Harima, Kibi), Tanba at the time of ‘Soujin Court’, we think so.)” and the ‘Udaijin’ which was one of the highest Executive of Court, from the Court. Ieyasu can obtain the military presiding rights all over Japan by ‘Seii-taisyougun’s position’. At the same time, he also gained the appointing rights of the ‘Daimyo’, ‘Syoumyou’ of the various ‘Han’, which is the military organization. At the same time, Ieyasu Tokugawa was also the ‘Udaijin’ of Court, so his administration obtained a legal (law of Rituryou) ground that his administrations were governing as the ‘Udaijin’ of the Court. This is the basic structure of the Edo Era. In addition, Ieyasu promulgated “Kinchuu-narabini-kugesyohaxtuto (1615)” which Zen-kanpaku Akizane Nijyou, Shogun Hidetada Tokugawa, and Zen-shogun Ieyasu Tokugawa signed jointly, then Ieyasut kept the Tennou completely away from politics. However, even among such trends of history, the Tennou was kept its existence as the successor to the Tennou’s throne, Japan has got the Tokugawa Era’s end.
Ｅ．From Meiji to the defeat of the great war ahead
１．Due to the ‘Meiji Ishin’ (=Meiji Restoration), Japan made the Constitution which Meiji-Tennou was declared and promulgated, and the Japanese people became the Tennou’s ‘Sinmin (= subjects)’. Also, Tennou was gained the governance right of Japan and the command right of the Army and Navy. When I read this Constitution (former Constitution = “the Constitution of the Empire of Japan”) again and tell about an impression thinking frankly now, this Constitution can be said that it had been becoming to the wartime’s Constitution that was conscious of Japan’s imminent crisis and that it had become to the Constitution that responded with crisis consciousness of then people. It may be said that this reflected the sense of tension placed by Japan at the end of Edo Era and the beginning of Meiji Period. Under this constitution, Japan could win when the confronting country was Qing Dynasty, Romanov Dynasty and so on, and when the region was a limited war. However, in the case of a modern state where the confronting countries were the United States of America or the UK, especially in the all-out war with the United States, Japan saw the overwhelming difference in industrial power of the both country, therefore, Japan had defeated.
２．Why Japan lost, why Japan had the reckless war, why Japan made the reckless military operations, I think of. However, since I am not a military officer, I cannot know the consciousness of a general officer who is the current staff developing the war strategies and military operations of the SDF. However, when I take a view of the Tennou system from the ancient era to the Meiji times, there is an impression that the consciousness of the so-called ‘Daihonei’ and military officers before the war might have been something near to the consciousness of the ‘Seiigun’. It is to send the forces at another country, it is to procure the foods and other necessaries locally by the sending forces, and it is to govern the another country by the sending forces. Today’s battles, even regional battles by the United States, cannot easily win the victory. Weapons to overwhelm the enemy, logistics, supply are necessary. And Japan should not isolate.
１．Due to the defeat in World War II, Japan obtained the current “The Constitution of Japan”, following the procedure of revising the former Constitution. In this Constitution, Tennou would be become the symbol, and the Japanese people became a person who is a sovereign. “The Constitution of Japan” is an excellent constitution that writes a subject of the Constitution as the Japanese people who has a sovereignty to each person.
２．At the present age, the region of “I” which is contrasted with “Public” that describes in the D, have changed to enterprises (companies) which are collecting money (capital), and using its money, thereby creating the goods, facilities and businesses. Then, the enterprises (companies) perform businesses organizally that aim to gain the profits by providing the people of society that seek the goods and services enterprise-selves create. We call this enterprise (company) “a juridical person” by the law. There are various enterprises in the juridical person. Companies that are the private enterprise aiming to gain the profits, in addition, Public corporation, Corporation (a corporate juridical person), Foundation (Nonprofit corporation), NPO corporation, Government finance, Fund (Foundation), Depository, Bank (Bank of Japan), Public corporation, Organization, Association, Alliance society, Troupe, Association (Society), Agency (Corporation), Chamber (Conference・Council), Union, there are many. Therefore, here we will represent each association and organization that includes private enterprises conveniently by one name, and make it an “enterprise”. Here, each private enterprise, association and organization becomes enterprise 1, enterprise 2, enterprise 3, ——-, enterprise ∞ respectively. These enterprises’ definition is, because even non-profit corporations also have to make profits for the survival of them, so we will use the same contents that mentioned earlier in this section and do it as ‘The definition 1 of enterprise’.
３．At today, it is said that the enterprise is ‘the vessel of society’. And enterprises that cannot benefit society cannot survive. This is the definition 2 of the enterprise. Here we will define the enterprise once more again.
Definition 1: Enterprise (company) is an organization or association which is collecting money (capital), and using its money, thereby creating the goods, facilities and businesses. Then, an enterprise (company) performs businesses organizally that aim to gain the profits by providing the people of society that seek the goods and services enterprise-self create. And, an enterprise (company) repeats this working (business) by year through year throughout the year.
Definition 2: The enterprise is ‘the vessel of society’, and an enterprise that cannot benefit society cannot survive.
４．Then, how about an individual? Nowadays, if we upload our current situation, opinions, and performance which we want to appeal to our own page such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and other social networking services (SNS) or WordPress, people can read and watch it. And people can write their opinions or impressions at there. Such individual is exactly a character who he and she is in Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and if a young mother uploads her child’s lunch box on there it is a kind of self-assertion that she projects her world through a child’s lunch box, we can say. There are also the crimes here, the infections by the virus are always accompanied, and here is not necessarily a safe place, but the individual’s world goes to be getting rid of the bulkheads that had been between the world. This continues in the future. It can be said that the internet realizes the role of “Anywhere door” of Doraemon. Here, a region of the individual and the world are very close, but, even if saying so, a region of individual who expresses in there can be finally there after being evaluated from the world. Let’s think of such an individual’s further private region. There is little thing to hide at there, this is not limited to the internet, but especially, the characteristics of the person become to its person’s personality on the internet, and by expressing it on the internet, the circle of empathy which obtains at there becomes more bigger so as to be incomparable with the world without the internet. The good quality stories such as ‘The story of fight against illness’, ‘The story of strenuous efforts’ and ‘The success story’ will surely call for people’s empathy. Conversely, people who have something to conceal under their contents that they represent or express on the internet are phishing scammers or criminals who plot the evil deeds, it can be said that they are the human beings of class who cannot live in the public world. And, in modern times, the class of people who have excessive money or power, for avoiding tax or hiding income, possess an account in a tax avoidance area called ‘Tax Haven’ and this class people have the ‘private regions’ which are hidden, and it may be said that it is thought that they often have the hidden regions of private. But, what we should not forget here is to have money is necessary. Even now and old days, we can do nothing without money. And, by using its money, such as we write by ‘The definition 2 of enterprise’ in the 3 of this section, to be of use to the society, we increase more money and we should also become rich ourselves.
１．From the description of the Ⅰ, I think that it comes to be able to understand why excellent young people choose the way of entrepreneurs in the USA. If you cannot understand it is an assignment. I do not mention the roles of people who affiliate with the work of the Japanese Cabinet, ministries, prefectures, municipalities, but think of their roles, please think still further.
Ⅲ．The secession from IWC (International Whaling Commission)
Ａ．Decision of the Japanese Government
１．The Japanese government decided to withdraw from the International Whaling Commission (IWC) and to resume commercial whaling from July 2019, by the Council of Cabinet decided on 25 December of last year (2018), and on the following 26th, Suga Chief Cabinet Secretary announced. It says to limit the area of commercial whaling to Japan’s Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone.
ａ．Was this decision made through public discussions and decision making process in Japan?
ｂ．Also, is this decision make people rich, conforming to the definition of “public” which we discussed by above the I – C – 5?
Definition 1: We say ‘Public’ is the society which people are rich, free and people are establishing people-selves rights.
ｃ．And, does this decision make our own flesh and blood of our own lesson that Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in a process leading to World War II and isolated and defeated?
ｄ．Then, does this decision conform to the spirit of “conservation of nature, protection of animals” which is the trend of good sense of people of the world?
ｅ．Still further, does the ‘food culture’ which is said in the town become to a reason for resuming commercial whaling?
ｆ．Each are all no.
Ⅳ．An assignment 2
１．Please think about how we should perform the decision making that are public and its process.