Kyoto University of Japan, Special professor Tasuku Honjyo would be received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Prize. About “Discovery of ‘PD-1 antibody’ that utilizes immune cells which human body have original for cancer treatment”, and this is the reason that Honjyo professor would be received the Prize, this article is describing its mechanism. This article is a part of Japanese version’s blog of April 23, 2018, and its blog states opinions to a report which a securities analyst performed rating on April 17, 2018 for the stock price of Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. in Japan. This article would introduce Honjyo professor’s achievements and introduce the challenges of cancer immunotherapy which is the current research subject.
１．Opdivo (Nivolumab) is an anti-cancer drug developed by Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. together Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (Hereafter, abbreviated as BMY Company). What is revolutionary is that in the past anti-cancer treatment was mainly based on resection and chemotherapy or scientific therapy, but Opdivo (Nivolumab) is an immunotherapy that helps the human body inherent immunity. This is the first formulation in the world to be made by “PD-1 antibody” which Kyoto University’s Professor Tasuku Honjyo would be discovered.
２．When cancer cells are formed, the human immune cells (killer) T cells attack cancer cells and are coming to keep the human body a normal state. At this time, a substance (receptor) called “PD-1” is expressed on the T cell surface. However, in order to protect cancer cellselves from T cells, cancer cells express specific substances (ligands: substances that specifically bind to specific receptors) on the surface of cancer cells, bind T cells, cancer cells try to take in T cells. The ‘ligand’ which this cancer cells issue is a substance called “PD-L1, PD-L2”. And then, when the “PD-1” receptor of the T cell binds to the ligand “PD-L1, PD-L2″ of the cancer cell, the T cell stops attacking the cancer cell, allow growth of cancer.
３．”PD-1 antibody” prevents T cell receptor “PD-1” from binding to ligand “PD-L1, PD-L2” of cancer cells and makes its original immune function of T cells exert. This is called immunotherapy. However, at this time, when T cells head for other organs and cells, side effects of autoimmune diseases occur.
Ｂ．Issues of Cancer Immunotherapy
１． The following is a summary of the research subject of “PD-1” project team of Kyoto University Graduate School, School of Medicine, Immune and medicine laboratory (Honjyo laboratory).
ａ．Response efficiency of the therapeutic effect with the ’PD-1 antibody’ alone is 20 to 30%.
ｂ．Depending on cancer type, combined use of “CTLA-4 antibody” dramatically improves the response efficiency of the treatment to 50～60%.
“CTLA-4 antibody”; There is a substance called “CTLA-4” that suppresses the action of T cell which exists as a receptor of T cell similar to PD-1 receptor. “CTLA-4 antibody” binds to this CTLA-4 receptor, suppresses the action of CTLA-4, and activates the action of T cells. The PD-1 receptor binds to and is taken up by cancer cells, but the CTLA-4 receptor binds to macrophages or substances called CD80, CD86 of dendritic cells and becomes inactive. This “CTLA-4 antibody” was commercialized as Yervoy (ipilimumab) by BMY Company.
ｃ．About patient who is unresponsive to “PD-1 antibody” therapy, this cause hasn’t been discovering yet.
ｄ．The mechanism of response / nonresponse to “PD-1 antibody” and the development and exploration of biomarkers to distinguish it are important.
ｅ．Immune responses of PD-1 are deeply involved in metabolism and are important for maintaining the fundamental homeostasis of life.
ｆ．From now on, it is necessary to understand the principle of life phenomena from a new viewpoint fusing immunity and metabolism.
This article is English translation of Japanese version uploaded on June 28, 2018.
Ａ．America · Nevada Province, Republican candidate nomination election at Lower House election of Legislature of Province
１．On June 26, 2018, Tim Reid reporter of Reuters is writing as follow; a 71-year-old man named Dennis Hof, who is acknowledging “Pimp (pimp ・prostitution broker)” in the Republican candidate nomination election of Lower House election of Legislature of Province, Nevada province, acquired its nomination. His political leap forward shows that the consciousness of the voters has undergone fundamental change in the “President Trump era”, not only the Republican Party was scratched but also that the US politics was turned over.
２．It says that Mr. Hof has three times divorce history, wrote a book titled “Aesthetics of pimp”, and runs one strip club and five legal brothels. Moreover, it says that he advertises a catch copy calling “Pahrump’s (Par ump’s) Trump” and is in the election. Las Vegas is to the east of Pahrump district at about 50km. Carson City is in the northwest. On the map of Google it is a desert area which four directions are surrounded by mountains.
３．Furthermore, when reading the article, 4 houses out of 5 houses of Mr. Hof ‘s brothels are located in Lyon County located east of Carson City. And Reuters interviewed at Carson City suburbs. For these reasons, his economic base is not in the Pahrump district, perhaps Mr. Hof gains the support of church by donations, or by bringing the action to solve the problem which secure water in the desert region, it seems to be spreading the support of Republican Party’s Evangelists to the state area of Nevada.
４．It is the main subject. The reporter writes as next about the reality which Mr. Hof who is living in the world of “Pimp”, but it is the Legislature of Province of America, is about to wear the shoes of the political world. Republican supporters based on traditional evangelical churches, especially many conservative Christians, say, ‘ We are losing trust to the Republican Establishment, and they are not fighting to defend the value which is threatened in modern America.’ How do we think about this?
５．If we would think of Jesus’ gospel, it is Jesus who had been saved Maria, who had been stoned, and it is Maria who had been applied for Jesus Jesus feet the last perfume oil. Women are the existences to be saved. How and what this salvation is to do, a lot of discussion has been doing in the United States, don’t you? One is a social relief, one is a salvation based on faith.
６．Republican and Democratic people who have been involved in the American society and its direction of institution to be have been doing many social reliefs. And there is a current system. And the thought of this American institutional design what was it like? As one of this index, we can show “What’s the Right Thing to do?”, which is a book of Harvard University, Professor Michael Sandel. And as the other index, we can show “THE WARRIORS REFLECTIONS ON MEN IN BATTLE”, which is a book of J. Glenn Gray. The former is a book which asks the choice of reality under the idea of justice, the latter is a book which wrote real reflections of a soldier who was under the Europe Front in World War II. And in the comparison between the former and the latter, the latter, which is a record of behaviors which act in a real way reacting to various situations occurring around himself as a soldier in front of the battlefield of the front of his eyes, the latter is superior in reality.
７．And, the reality which this America’s justice cannot correspond to various situations that arises in the reality is producing “Pahrump’s Trump”. It can think so. But even so, it is not good that American justice is replaced of by old American values such as Mr. Hof. Mr. Hof is as an owner of old-American values, he needs humility which fears God and wish for maximum happiness of women, this article thinks so. The same is true for Pahrump’s Evangelists. Christians in Nevada should abolish the public prostitute’s houses in the state and start the movements for women’s salvation. It is the way of the Christians. And it is a real road. I think so.
Realities which are coming to be obvious from the debts of local cities in the People’s Republic of China
This article is English translation of the Japanese version uploading on July 31, 2018.
Ａ．The groups unfinished skyscrapers in Tianjin
On June 15, Reuters is reporting on the unfinished buildings groups in Tianjin City, “The rips in the economies of Tianjin are occurring.” In the cities and local cities of the People’s Republic of China, it is no wonder that there are unfinished building groups and roads, or facilities which were made for some use but not fulfilling their use. In their economic calculations, they are admirable goods and works-in-progress, and they may be wondering why we call them ghost towns. In fact, in our economic calculations, too, there are calculations which we sort like so as the completion constructions or unfinished constructions, product goods, parts, works-in-progress for buildings and goods, therefore their time scale is different, maybe. However, such rough calculations must be kept in their country alone. Their vision which they call “One Belt, One Road”, too, to put it simply, is the theory that expands from China to Central Asia and West Asia the theory which had been advocated by the former Prime Minister of Japan Tanaka Kakuei in 1972. And it was called “The Japan Islands Remodeling Theory”. Their intention is in infrastructure constructions which they make main force of them and making their profit. (If we express this with economic terms aesthetically, it is to gain the revitalization and ripple effects for regional economies through infrastructure constructions.) And, what kind of this real example is it, let’s take a small country, Sri Lanka which exists on the vision of “One Belt, One Road”. Sri Lanka built a port (Hambantota port) with a construction cost of approximately $ 1.3 billion. Its construction was financed by the People’s Republic of China with 85% of the construction cost (It is said that the annual interest is 6, 3%), and construction was carried out by the country-owned enterprise of the People’s Republic of China, ‘China Port and Harbor Process Public Corporation (zhōng/zhòng guó gǎng wān gōng chéng gōng sī 中国港湾工程公司)’. However, in repaying this loan, in the end, Sri Lanka signed a contract last year to lend out 80% of the stock of the port management company to company of the People’s Republic of China for 99 years at about $ 1.1 billion. Let’s call this the business of People’s Republic of China style. This is the methods that has not changed since ancient times, these are the methods themselves that vicious merchants subjugate the poor by peeling off the clothing of poor, squeeze poor earnings from the poor, degrade to the male and female servants, slaves, harlot. I may have been coming overestimated the People’s Republic of China. Even in this blog, before, I wrote as “The end of the socialism” but maybe that China did not even exist its socialism. Also, considering “One Belt, One Road”, AIIB (Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank) was established, but it seems like the pheromone of infrastructure construction led by the People’s Republic of China. And, as for the plan that the People’s Republic of China shows, its corresponding countries must be thoughtful enough. For example, in the case of trunk roads or railroad construction, the countries located on the way of the cities of the starting and ending points have to work with doing good judgment; what kind of plan is, and it can be really realized, who bears the construction cost of home country route, if constructions are financings, who will do the loan, its loan is fair or not. Otherwise, on the time axis of economic calculation in the People’s Republic of China, when the progress of construction depends on the section, the bridge and the iron bridge have completed in country A, however by the case of all routes, there may occur circumstances that say that the prospect of completion cannot make. In this case, if A country has a city that is a hub connecting Central Asia and West Asian cities, the completed bridge will be able to connect to those road networks and will be beneficial in those economic zones. If these bridges and iron bridges have built over the canyon, and if the operation of these bridges awaits completion of the construction section of another country B, how country A will be able to make the next step? Moreover, the line of country B has become the ‘Deadline’ which even the plan of construction cannot make by circumstances of country B. And the debt of infrastructure construction heavily has remained in country A. So what shall we do? Shall we apply for this bridge or iron bridge, to the future world heritage as the remains of the 21st century? Even if I write like this, this is not a satire. It can be predicted as a reality that actually happens. And there is a possibility that country A will be the second and third Sri Lanka. However, this result will satisfy the original intention of the leaders of the People’s Republic of China. They have further increased their ruling country by financing of construction fund and its long-term loan.
Ｂ．Proceeding of creditize (retention of claim right) to Chinese land by enterprises
Today’s main subject is not “One Belt, One Road”. Let’s get back to the subject.
ａ）Some country-owned enterprises in Tianjin are under debt default or they are being chased for raising of money for debt repayment.
ｂ）In the financial institutions, it is appearing some financial institutions which are refusing loans to local enterprises.
ｃ）This has been arising according as the Chinese government tightens high-risk loans and restrains bad loans.
ｄ）The finance affairs of Tianjin is getting worse due to the restraint of real estate investment.
ｅ）Tianjin has relied the debt interest payment which has caused by the construction boom on the income earned by the sale of the land use right.
ｆ）Local officials said the debt problem of Bang-hai (the name of the development project area in Tianjin City) is serious but it is possible to “solve” 40% of the debt by expanding the sale of the land.
Reuters does not reveal the news source that said the sale of land in 2 – f) above. But what is spoken here is not limited to city in Tianjin, but in the People’s Republic of China, the retentions of claim (right) to land are proceeding by the enterprises, it is able to say that its situation will proceed further.
This statue was built to commemorate the discovery of ‘Avermectin’ of Dr. Satoshi Omura who led to the drug development of ‘Ivermectin’. ‘Ivermectin’ has led to lightning to live for the people who suffer from ‘Parasitie’ disease of world and ‘River Blindness’ disease, ‘Elephantiasis’ disease in Africa and other areas. This statue is in Kitasato University School of Pharmacy in Japan.
Many comments have been received to this blog. There are about 1500 unopened comments now. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to everyone who would have been sent your comments. I’m also receiving friend requests of Facebook. I would say, Thank you very much from the bottom of my heart.
The world has become really narrow by the development of the internet. However, if we differ from our countries or regions each other, we also differ from our cultures and common senses in social life. Articles and comments that we uploaded with thinking we are good are often received as articles and comments which are unpleasant and insane for people in other countries and regions and people in particular groups.
If we think this, we can know that articles and comments we can upload are not unlimited. I will gradually upload the comments which are reaching to this blog. However, I would like you to understand that all of the comments cannot be uploaded, and the following sites cannot be approved.
Sites with viruses embedded.
Sites listing two or more sites.
Sites considered to be a trademark violation.
Site of depiction of sex and violence, or sites to remind of them.
Sites which are contrary to social ethics norms and public order and morality.
Today, I would like to tell everyone these contents and I would like to face to the tomorrow of this blog. I would sincerely pray for your health and success.
* This article is an English translation of the Japanese version uploaded on February 12, 2018.
This story is about an event there was in the past. There were study groups for each high-tech sector which Industry Promotion Division of Chiba Prefecture and Industrial Support Technology Institute of Chiba Prefecture promoted and proceeded. In one of these groups, I think that it was probably the internet study group, a young man had been made a presentation about Money. I thought its money to have possibilities to become the community money, that is, there is a community or other community, and among individuals making up these communities, individual people do and therefore the amount of various labor which belongs to individuals, (that is, the amount of reward that can earn by working), and, as a currency that can show the amount of value born by production, (that is, the amount of value of all things, cars, personal computers, tableware, accessories, machines, robots, trains, planes, ships, rockets, space crafts, etc.), its money will be able to replace conventional money, I thought so. There is a memory that I sent its impressions to its man. And, it would be seemed that this man who was still young in those days had been developed the ‘Bit coin’.
Next, recently, there was a news that an exchange named “Coin check” which exchanges virtual currency was hacked, and virtual currency “NEM” equivalent to 58 billion yen was stolen. And the responsible persons of this exchange say they are saying that they will refund to people who bought “NEM”. However, the refund rate is said to be 48 billion yen which is lowered by the theft. (The payment request from customers on February 9 is about 30 billion yen.) This is a strange story. The difference of “investment amount” – “refund amount” is remaining at the hand of the people of “Coin check”. How much money the investors exchanged for “NEM”? The responsible officials of the “Coin check” will indicate their intention to refund the money which exchanged at its time and they will have to make that effort.
B. The main subject
I will write two episodes as a prologue and think about ‘Bit coin’ a little. Currently, the community of ’Bit coin’ is made up of participants who exchanged currencies such as yen and dollar to the ’Bit coin’ on the Internet. Among those participants, there would be many people that say, ‘I bought ‘Bit coins’ for speculation purposes, therefore I do not intend to participate in the community.’ However, it is a community including those people.
Next, does a ‘Bit coin’ secure its value by what? Virtual currency, including ‘Bit coin’, outsiders like me cannot know its actual situation; who is issuing them in the system, who and how is collecting ‘Bit coin’ for exchange, and whether anyone can run an Exchange, and whether the issuing office also can use as an Exchange. But, what I can understand a little by reading it is that all transactions of ‘Bit coins’ on the network have the same content the record of “ledgers” written in the same way on a computer of a plurality of volunteer companies, therefore by all the plural “ledgers” having the same contents they prove its all transactions. ’Bit coin’ insists on the correctness of its own “ledgers” with the existence of this network, that is, a system (block chain) that can track all transactions without a defect. And this is a guess, but among the plurality of individual computers, it seems that ‘number of bits’ of the first computer which established the “ledger” calculation at first required are given as ‘Bit coins’ to this computer. This is calling ‘mining’. By the way, it seems that electricity used for transactions of ’Bit coins’ are 48 tera・wh / year (equivalent to the power consumption of 4.4 million homes in the US) (February 9, New York, Reuters). Here, even though the correctness of the “ledgers” is told, no value is given yet.
The people who give value to ‘Bit coin’ are people (including corporations) who participate in this network by exchanging cash and ‘Bit coins’. However, unfortunately, ‘Bit coin’ is currently considered to be object of speculation and does not yet acquire the status of money. Besides, it is virtual money on the network. It may be that it ends like the tulip speculation of the Netherlands. What we should do?
I am a one person who is thinking that money in the world is not enough. If I say so, you may laugh by saying that money circulating in the world is overflowing like a flood. However, it is a story in the developed countries and major countries, it is actually not enough in the poor developing country. At first, I thought next, if a country of the backward region such as Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Middle East will issue a real currency like a yen or dollar which have a unit name of ‘bit’, it is good. However, a country that is a military and dictator nation like North Korea is never an object. Though, there were some Web articles saying that North Korea is also involved on ’mining’. However, anyways, at area excluding such military and dictatorship nations, we will finance the money which collected by speculative elements of ‘bit coin’ to countries that aim for the development as a democratic liberal state, and when people of their countries use its money for developing their countries and enriching themselves, there will be no speculative elements of ‘bit coins’, the elements of public investment will be stronger, and an institution to supervise this will also be needed. In this way, if we prepare second stage of ‘bit coin’ and go into it, it will be good, I thought so.
C. The worries of society to virtual currency
Now, the remarks of economists and monetary policymakers to the virtual currency are increasing. China already banned trading. German and French Finance Ministers and the Central Bank Governor expressed at the next G20 that they should discuss the policy of the virtual currency and the financial impact (Berlin, 9 February, Reuters).
Certainly, looking at the transaction price (Exchanges: ’Bit fryer’) of ‘Bit coins’ carried on NHK’s NEWS WEB (February 11, 2018), the price of about 100,000 yen / 1 ‘Bit coins’ at the beginning of last year (2017) exceeds 2 million yen in December and it became about 1.25 million yen in January, and so on, price is becoming erratic fluctuations. On the site called CryptoCompare, the price of today (Japan time · February 12 · 16:10) is 926846, 06 yen.
In the case of stocks, the economic activities of the company assure its value. In the case of virtual currency, there is nothing. Even in the case of Japan only, the fact we can guess from the theft of ‘NEM’ which corresponds 58 billion yen is the fact that the Shops and Exchanges of the virtual currency across Japan will be pooling a huge amount of money.
D. One trial thinking
I will talk about ‘Bit coin’ here.
The current virtual currency ’bit coin’ is exchanged by exclusively target of speculation, and its price is decided by trading of people seeking speculative opportunities, but its value is not being guaranteed by actual economic activity.
Even the virtual currency should contribute to the development of the real economy. I think that this contribution should be newly‐developing regions of the world. However, the military nations and dictatorship nations must be excluded. ‘Bit coin’ is a community currency, but it should not be a currency that circulates in only one region in one country. This is because it causes economic confusion and disturbance. Therefore, I think, in the newly‐developing regions of the world, we should contribute to the countries that aim to develop as a democratic nation and a liberal state nation. In this time, in these countries, it cannot be said that the existence of countries that are willing to issue currencies in unit of ‘Bit’, as I wrote above, is none at all. However, here, avoiding involvement in the state, establishing the Association (provisional name) of the ‘Bit coin’ network, and next, through the activities of this Association, investing in the countries with the will that I wrote above, the participants to the ‘Bit coin’ network would realize to contribute to the rich society of that country and the development of people.
As a result, ‘Bit coin’ become to have worth having the connections with the real economy through the activities of the Association which is the activity organization of the ‘Bit coin’ network community and funding provided by the Association.
Also, people who have connections with ‘Bit coin’ on the network must make efforts to realize this vision and contribute to the development of the country that realizes the vision.
The view which is writing here is the personal opinion of this blog author.
＊ This article was written Japanese on October 7, 2013 and again translate into English.
A. About the history
About a certain writing, the Doctor has been described that ‘the same past history as it really occurred is not able to exist’, after adding on the condition of reservation that says that it is been saying like the one that was written with relating a history of Europe. (“The Open Society and Its Enemies”, p399-p401 Misuzu Shobo in Japan 1980) The point of this argument is a logic that it says that ‘it is one piece of interpretation and it is also possible about the other interpretation and therefore it is not the history’. Is it really so? For example, if the description is not false, the fact that Caesar crossed the Rubicon River has been coming conveyed, we can say that it is the history. The interpretation is an other problem.
The Doctor has been written as follows. When we go beyond ‘the idea that it says that history of power would be our judge’, that is, when we go beyond the idea that it says that we had been in a position of passive person looking from the man of power, ‘we will succeed in placing the power under our control. As such, we will be able to justify the history from our side’. (ib. p410) This is the attitude of the democrat and this is the one which can be called the history active principle. However, it is thought that the Doctor seems to have been refused the previous history. Here are two worlds, that is, there is a world that is not the history and there is a world that became the history. How will we recognize these two worlds to be the history? Should we call it ‘pre-history’ and ‘true-history’? Both are in one continuity of the same time together. We will gather facts of each one which occurred in the history from the already written history documents and the data, and composing it is the task of us.
B. About the possibility of opposite proof
‘The possibility of opposite proof’ theory is the proof of percipient mind of the Doctor. The essence of the way of this thinking is the one that it says that ‘all theories have stayed in a hypothesis until being disproved it’. It is not the one that an ordinary man can refute the consistence of the logic that the Doctor was made. However, some reason that feels fuzzy remains in the view of the world of the ordinary man. This may become the encouragement, too, for the scientists to do the study of the most advanced field. However, it is possible even to say that the world is formed on the temporary phenomenon when this view of the world is expanded in the world of the daily life and is reasoned. I think that it can also solve by the strict rule of the field, but the world that thinking content by different fields is different returns like the classic theology world, it is not preferable. This also seems to be a problem related to the core of thinking, what the thought thinks.
On September 4, there was a news that the existence of the Higgs particle was confirmed. Now, the universe is considered to continue to be changing. Among the Space time, the time that the human being lives is at most only 100 years. However, we are now living. And, the town has spread in front of our eyes, the world is spreading. This world is beautiful and powerful. Would this world have been forming on the hypothesis? I think that it is not so. If saying extremely, ‘The possibility of opposite proof’ theory is possible even to lead to the conjectures that it says that, among in the Space time, our 100 years are only like a temporary phenomenon. I think I would like to avoid such reasoning. I think that the thought that surely proves the human being’s current time among the Space time is necessary.
C. About the evaluation of Marx
The Doctor is described as follows. “The ‘scientific’ Marxism died. The sense of social responsibility and the love to freedom must survive.” (ib. P351)
I thought of Marx, from the viewpoint that it says that why Marxism loses the freedom. And, ①. I clarified that his theory of value was the one which cuts off the variety of the personality of the human beings. And, ②. I got the proposition that it says that “the thought which have a rational outward appearance that appears in the history is not necessarily all the truth”. And furthermore, ③. I got the conclusion that it says that “the world of Marx is forming on the fictional structure”. From the theory of Marx, even if freedom is a desire, freedom is not born.
The Doctor has been said, ‘Science tries, and it makes progress by straightening an error.’ (ib. p245) In addition, the Doctor has been said, ‘Marx thought is a theory which has the relation purely with history, a theory aiming to predict the future course of the development at the viewpoint of economic and power struggle, also especially revolution.’ (ib.246) But Marxism is not a science. Marxism demands an action to the person who believes it. What is action it demands? History testifies that the mountain of death and bloodshed has been built where there was Marxism. ―― This “death” contains, such as the death of freedom of speech, the death of freedom of the press, the death of freedom of religion, the death of freedom of conscience, the death of diversity of the human beings and its freedom, and the death of the fundamental human rights. ―― This fact teaches to us that the person who loves liberty and democracy must fight against it.
D. About Hegel
I read Hegel to know what Marx got from Hegel. Hegel thought the world is the one which the spirit has appeared. I have been understanding by allotting Spinoza’s Nature to the Hegel’s Spirit. Spinoza’s Nature is also the God. This seemed to be heresy of Judaism at that time, and he was excommunicated (expelled). As the succession of such nature = spirit, I considered Hegel. This Nature was also succeeded to Marx. Marx did nature the spirit of Hegel. In case of Hegel, the one that the spirit appeared was a human being, was a community and was a nation. The human being was an object (thing) at the same time. Marx reversed and replaced this spirit with matter. In addition, Hegel is a person who introduced labor to the philosophy. This is the most biggest factor Marx selected Hegel. The human being is making the world by activities of day and days. In this way, the fact that it says that people who are making the world, that is, people who work are the Subject of the world had come and been capturing by Marx.
In case of Hegel, he had grasped that the history is the movement and the phenomenon of spirit. Marx had grasped that the history is the movement of the matter. In the consciousness of Hegel, the human being is the existence that the human being, as the independent, that is, the main constituent, is going to establish the self. When this becomes Marx, the human being was considered as the existence that he does not yet establish the independent and as the existence that he is to establish himself by class struggle. That is, the individual main constituents (human beings) are caught as members in one class, and the whole class that the individual main constituents (human beings) belong is considered as one main constituent. The way of thinking to catch the whole of this class as one main constituent has become a national view at the former Soviet Union (especially the time of Stalin), at the generation before a little of The People’s Republic of China , and at the current North Korea. In other words, the whole of the people is one indivisible main constituent and becomes the cause that is a nation. This fact shows that in order for them to get democracy, it is necessary to start by thinking about what it means that humans behave as individuals and as independent human being. And in the People’s Republic of China, now, the people who are beginning it are appearing. This is China’s hope.
I would want to enter into Hegel of the Doctor, but cannot easily do it. The Doctor has been refused Hegel. The Doctor connected German racists and Hegel, and he had been put racist’s responsibility on Hegel. This logic let be Hegel a banned book.
I am thinking dialectics to be a method that human beings develops own-selves by dialogs. I don’t admit the one which is useful to a method of Marx. However, in case of Hegel, I think that we can admit the following three as our mental attitude and the way of confronting when we face the modern world. ① The dialectic that removes the pedantic accessories like “an sich – für sich – an und für sich ” and like ” fürsichsein “. ② The method of the self-confirming. ③ The concept of approval of others.
The life of Hegel is from August, 1770 to November, 1831. In this era, the industrial revolution has already been biginning from the United Kingdom. There was the French Revolution in 1789. Napoleon also had appeared. This era was at unquiet days in Europe and was also the dawn period of modern Europe. Germany was also in this stepping. Hegel was here and was the person who thought about ‘the nation’. Those who want to read Hegel should understand these histories well and can read this philosopher’s description. There is no word of ’a banned book’ anywhere in the Doctor’s book. However, ‘Hegel and new tribalism’ which is included in ‘The Open Society and Its Enemies’ that the Doctor was written has enough intensity to forbid the reader to touch Hegel. We have to read Hegel by having recognized the Doctor’s criticism well.
About the evaluation of Dr. Karl Popper against the Hegel’s dialectic
＊ This sentence is a republishing one that was written on July 28, 2013 (Japanese version).
A. Hegel’s dialectic in “Conjectures and Refutations” of Dr. Karl Popper
α. It is first, about miscellaneous thoughts.
In Dr. Karl Popper, Hegel compares with Kant, his position occupies a bad one. It is the completely opposite evaluation more than it says that his position is bad. Kant is clearly stated, and it let people who read it consents. On the other hand, about the point at issue of Hegel, it is thought that a lucidity of Doctor as the critic will be ideological problem rather than it says that it is indistinctness.
As this cause, next thing can be thought. Firstly, what Kant had done is the philosophy that puts self’s thinking as a basis when he attempts to recognize an object, and it is that Dr. Popper has been also inherited this position. Second, that of Hegel is the self-completing (self-accomplishing) philosophy. From Germany, Marx and Hitler had come out. Marx is a Hegel’s student, and as for Hitler, the concept of self-completing ‘The Absolute Being’ of Hegel might let capture him fanatically. Hitler was thought as an enemy of a liberal society.
I am always thinking. Before the times of Hitler (1889-1945), there was Max Weber (1864-1920) of the philosopher. The philosopher such as the star which shined was alive in Europe. However, they could not prevent the emergence of Hitler. I often think why this had occurred. Hegel called Napoleon the spirit of world. Beethoven wrote the symphony No3. Against Hitler too, because people were manipulated by his words, his supporters might be unexpectedly many. And, it is said that he was excellent in making speeches, and he played music of Wagner (1813-1883) before his speech, and he made the atmosphere that invited the audience to enthusiasm. However, Nazis’s act, if it is still called politics in today, it is the politics that deny a human being and we must not permit the appearance of a person like Hitler at any time. That is the target of the battle that we must face with full power. Why would philosophers have been powerless against such situations?
Dr. Popper (1902-1994), too, was while living. As for the book, “The Logic of Scientific Discovery” was written in 1934 and “The Open Society and its Enemies” was published in 1945. A reason that Dr. Popper has been lacked lucidity against Hegel, Hegel was a German philosopher, and it is thought that it may not be able to deny that there was tense thought that the Jewish people had been accommodated to the concentration camps. Many Jewish people were involved in the October Revolution in Russian. As its representative, we will be able to pick a person called Leon Trotsky. He had been assassinated in Mexico by assassinators of Stalin (1940). Also in those days, communism had been scattering illusions on philosophers.
Dr. Popper is more favorable to Marx than Hegel. I’m thinking that the world of Marx is the world of the fiction. I write it later, but there is a description to accept that a person draws the world of the fiction, in a Doctor too, through Kant. If this is to draw the fiction world, like Marx, in our daily world, we must refuse it. The cause that a lot of people of the egg of the scientist having the high educational background participated in the acts of terrorism of Omu Shinrikyo may exist in the place like this reason. Again, it is obvious that the fictional world where is made such a religion by the fiction is unacceptable.
β．It is Hegel’s dialectic
About the dialectic, please refer to an article on December 31, 2011 (Japanese version) ‘A. About the dialectic’ in “Law and Justice 6”.
The Doctor mentions Hegel and was explained like next. ‘Dialectics is the theory that insists that something one, especially human’s thought, develop by a method that is characterized by what is called “dialectical three steps growth” saying ‘ These – Antithese – Synthese ‘. This explanation is an error. This is rather the one that the Doctor has been spoken about “the development of dialectics” that, in particular, was prescribed by Engels of the times of Marx.
Philosophy of Hegel is the self-confirming philosophy. The self faces with the others, the other things, the other world, and establishes one self and goes. He called this way the dialectic that succeeds to the dialogue method of the ancient Greek philosophy. It is a method of Socrates and is the method of “Conjectures and Refutations” of Dr. Popper, too. In this way, the self understands own-self and the world and develops both congruently. This is the skeleton of the philosophy of Hegel.
The self: In the case of Hegel, it is also a spirit. The act of human being is the act of each human being’s sprit, we may (can) understand that self is sprit and nature. I’m doing so.
However, Hegel says, “The absolute being is the spirit.” (Enzyklopädie, 384) Also he says “The absolute spirit”. (Ib. 385) A little difficult words line up but several words Hegel’s saying exist here. ” The objective state of sprit and the ideal state of sprit, that is, the unification with its concept, when it exists absolutely, and when it is with the state of unification that produce the self forever, and when the spirit is absolute truth state, this is the absolute spirit.” (Ib. 385) This is the arrival point of self-conclusion type philosophy of Hegel. I’m being a state that I cannot understand this “the absolute being ” and ” the absolute spirit “.
Therefore I quote Hegel one more. “The spirit can endure negation of own individual immediateness, that is, infinite pain. In other words, the spirit support affirmatively oneself against this negativity and can be the same one for oneself. This possibility is the universality that one spirit shows that oneself seeks ‘the confronting (facing) – the self – the affirming’ “. (Ib. 382) When the self is the spirit, we know that this is the world in Japan that has been preached as an ultimate state of the realization of the Zen, and as mental attitude of every days of the excellent ‘samurai’, too. However, when the self is the nature, we know that an equation saying ‘the self = the natural = the absolute being’ is equal cannot establish. Therefore I decided to call this absolute being ‘the arrogance of thought’, ‘the disrespect of consideration’. And also, this method of recognizing of ‘the absolute being’ which Hegel used is denied, even if we say from the dialectic (dialogue method) which had been the beginning of his self-awareness. Did he know this? It is not able to know now. But it is interesting when we think that he had been noticing it. He left such a problem for us of the coming age. But let’s move forward without stopping.
Hegel’s achievement is in the point to be the person who was conscious that he introduces labor to the philosophy. “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations” of Adam Smith was published in 1776. It thinks that he was inspired by this. Hesiodos of ancient Greece had preached that it is diligent in “Works and Days”. The labor is talked in the Bible too. From ancient times, people have been understanding that the labor is the one which brings wealth to the people by obtaining its produce and product of useful fortune. Hegel had incorporated this labor which is the source producing wealth with works and as the source which produces the world, in the philosophical world.
Since then the object that the philosophy treat becomes the world. Until then, the philosopher had ascertained his existence and the world, by his thinking. A typical example is enough to remember that Descartes said: ‘Je pense, donc je suis’ (= ‘I think, so I am’). In the same way, the artist inspires one’s personality to one’s work. Politician aims to make a society which people are able to have worth which live in life. A scholar makes one’s academic achievement and effective policy proposal the evidence of one’s existence. By the same way as this, a decoration craftsman of the Japanese Edo era makes the workmanship of his ornamental ‘kanzasi’ the evidence of his existence, and a modern reinforcing steel rod worker is able to see the proof of his work in building that completed. It is Hegel that made this world possible. We must not forget this point which is his achievement, even if how he may be disparaged.
γ. Dr. Popper’s method
Dr. Popper was inherited the method of Kant. The Doctor is described, ‘The intelligence does not derive the law from nature but imposes the law to nature.’ (“Conjectures and Refutations”, ‘Copernicus-like Turn of Kant’) And, about this, Doctor is described that this is a formulation by Kant. This description is also the one that should say ‘the arrogance of the thought’. It is not exactly correct. It is only when nature is behaving its own behavior or when it is possible to reason its behavior we can describe the natural phenomenon as the law or the hypothesis. Kant has written that ‘all things that occur, even if it will be saying hypothetically, are inevitable’. (” Critique of Pure Reason”, ‘Refutation against the idealism’, Japan Iwanami Bunko first volume P307) All the hypothesis and the philosophical all structures which are made hypothetically cannot be acceptable all their assertions (words).
δ. Error of Marx
The world of Marx is the world of the fiction. The society which assumes the homogeneity of labor and the coessentiality of society is assembled.
About the homogeneity of labor, if it is suppose that 10,000 persons are here with order of A B C D– – – -. That these people to work, that is, labor (Marx called this labor “outlay of human labor force of the physiological meaning”.) are placed equally in unit A of the same price. This is the basis of Marx’s economic theory. On this basis, the exchange theory that changed unit A to labor hours have been built up.
Only saying easily, too, we find that Marx truncated the significance that a human being lives for variously, and he composed his theory. And he had been approving such a truncation in a draft of his ‘doctoral thesis’. There is no reason society thus fabricated is freedom.
In the article, the quotation of Dr. Popper, Hegel and Kant is translated from Japanese to English. Please consult the ones that are published in each country.
＊ This sentence is a republishing one that was written on December 13, 2013. During these days, Mr. Liu Xiaobo has been passed away on July 13, 2017, and the situations of society also changed. The article itself is old, too. However, the content which I write and I’m asking here is not changing. Human’s history will let the military and political tensions which are being made in Far East Asia into the past events. We have responsibilities to make this great flow of human’s history. Therefore, this is its message.
In addition, I sincerely would be praying to the soul of Mr. Liu Xiaobo.
A. The fact of the history
Today, it becomes the document to describe the fact of the history.
There are populations of 1.3 billion in the People’s Republic of China. And within of them, 85 million people are Communist Party members. And, the people of the Communist party have consciousness as the leader in the nation, and every day, they are thinking of the way how the nation and society that correspond with the role of each person should be, and they are doing the duties that were decided as the Party. I would say plainly the fact in front of the people of this Chinese Communist Party. In China, the role of the Chinese Communist Party as a party of one-party dictatorship came to an end. And, in the world, the curtain of a magnificent experiment of the history called the socialism would be closed by the end of the role as the instructive political party of one-party dictatorship of this Chinese Communist Party in China.
This is not to say anything talking large. When I think about the one which Marx had been thinking, and consider what a human being is, and trace the footprint which the nation which calls itself socialism showed in the history, it leads to this conclusion logically. I am only trying to write it down merely. In addition, this short sentence is also written for the Chinese people and the people who have expectation to the word of “socialism” and have a longing to the word “socialism”.
Needless to say, the socialism to say here is the one that Marx and Engels had submitted in the 19th century. And, its way of thinking and realization are as follows.
That is, it says that the human beings let the society’s system which the human beings produce their society from the capital (private ownership) system which is established by admitting the equality of personal ownership and the equality of individual personality under the law as the basic units of society change to the social (society possession) system which the land and the means of production change to the society possession and thereby the society changes into the system of production which individual personality and the ownership of the individual receives restrictions by the law.
At first, please compare the contents of each description which is writing above about “the capital (private ownership) system” and “the social (society possession) system”.
A） The capital (private ownership) system : It is the form of production and society and it is established by admitting the equality of private ownership and the equality of individual personality under the law as the basic units of society. (Marx started from admitting this).
B) The social (society possession) system : It changes the land and the means of production to the society possession, and thereby the society changes into the system of production which individual personality and the ownership of the individual receives restrictions by the law. (I write only a conclusion. This is the society which Marx submitted. There is a utopia society beyond this. However, after all, it is stopping to utopia. For the human beings, I think everyone can understand that the society of “B” makes the worsened society than the society of “A”, clearly. Then if adding more to write, this is the truth of Marxism, and this is the limits that Marxism has.)
“A” is society of the liberalism countries. Of course, this is principle, and there is a lot of contradiction in this society, too. The people who are going to suck the sweet juice which flock to around the policy-makers, and the policy-makers who are going to get a status and some profit from these people, and so on, exist in many areas. And these are not rare ones. However, the people of this society activate the check function to the injustice, and try to keep a clean society. And, the society which the people of this society always aspire to be is the society which is being raised the flag of “the humanism and public” more higher. And societies have been heading toward here.
7. “B” is the society which the current People’s Republic of China traced. The degree of freedom of the human being is different from the people of the free various countries. The ones which the people in the socialism society receive by making this degree of freedom sacrifice are abundant distributions. However, the people of the People’s Republic of China of today, lacks even the equality of distribution. (If this word of “equality” is too general, we can use the word “balance of welfare that the gap is less”.)
Overseas media such as Reuters and the New York Times are reporting the accumulated property (moneymaking) of Chinese national leaders.
The causes which allow such accumulation of wealth exist in the national structure of the People’s Republic of China. In other words, under the power structure of the one-party dictatorship of the Communist Party and the structure that each class governments are an administrative organization and also are a business entity, the government officials of the executive branch can choose freely a company that accepts the projects that they are planning out. Then, when the elected company is one’s relative, as for the profit, it is saved in one’s vicinity. This can be done similarly even if a company is not a relative. There is no room to do the checking function here.
However, ‘the People’s Net’ on December 17, 2012 tells us that the following remarks were made at the economic forum of the People’s Republic of China (“China’s Structural Adjustment Forum”). People recognize that reform is necessary.
①. Segregation of responsibility of business entity and administrative organization
②. Segregation of responsibility of government administrator and nation-owned assets administrator
③. Segregation of government and business entity
④. In economic activity, the government must not serve as both “player” and “referee”.
⑤. Put out hands only when necessary. It must also be cautious when hands put out.
The land of the People’s Republic of China is the public ownership system. It thinks that the means of production can be classified like a national-ownership, village-ownership, and group-ownership, but also, if each form can be considered the form of ownership of the various business entities that procure the means of production operation of them, it can say that this is the same as the possession system of the capitalism countries. The basics of the income are the achievement-based principle. And the People’s Republic of China, by the introduction of a private company by the economic reform and opening up, has adopted in their country foreign companies (technology and fund) which can carry out their economic policies that they planned. As a result, the society greatly developed.
Here, I ask myself about one problem. It is a question that “People’s Republic of China is the socialism nation, or not?” The conclusion is no. This question becomes important when thinking about human history. And it reaches one conclusion that socialism has come to an end.
The possessions and the distributions of the People’s Republic of China are not it of the socialism already. However, at the same time, it can say that such an example which we can see in the moneymaking news by the families of national leaders who are reported occurs, because Chinese society holds residuum of the socialism called the one-party dictatorship of the Chinese Communist Party,
In other words, the People’s Republic of China is, as they are saying, “the socialism market economic nation”, and despite the economy accomplished conversion to the market economy by reform and opening up, it can says that they are holding residuum of the socialism. Well, where can we find the socialism in their country? At first, the public ownership system of the land corresponds to it. (Here, it calls the public ownership the ones which include nation ownership, group ownership.) Secondly, it is the rule system of the one-party dictatorship by the Chinese Communist Party which is indeed nothing but the negative part of the socialism.
The people in China move forward to reform of the parts of this negative from now. Already, there are people who are going ahead to its duty, as we know. And if it says by the expression that Chinese people will be easy to understand why the reform is necessary, there are various contradictions that is hard to solve between the people of modern China and the reign mechanism which suppress the people by the power of one-party dictatorship of the Chinese Communist Party which are inherent in, and for its resolution, the people’s wisdom and the political system that solve contradictions by the party politics of the two parties or more and the democracy by the parliamentary are necessary. This is its reason.
As can be seen from their “The communique of the Third Plenary Meeting of the 18th Central Committee”, the people of Chinese Communist Party will stick to the word “socialism”. Because, surely, in the word of this “socialism” holds “the residuum of the socialism = the politics of one-party dictatorship by the Communist Party” that is the reason which they are them. They have developed China’s society and economy so far. But, by this reason which Chinese society has developed so far, this political system has finished its role. Toward political party politics by political parties of two or more which are on the equality with each other, and take responsibility for China and world people together, China must open the way.
B. the vision of the new China
The vision of new China is the problem of the people in China. In China, already, the zero-eight charter exists. The people of reformists who carry forward the new citizen (public citizen) movement, the human rights activity and the constitution movement exist. The people of the China Democratic Party exist. The innumerable people who demand their rights to the government, and who demand the recovery of the loss that they lost to the government exist. The people of Tibet and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region are seeking independence. And there are the people of the reformist in the Chinese Communist Party. The vision of new China will be pictured by these people. We wish next things. ①. It’s that the new China is the peaceful nation of “mutual benefit ・ peace”, ②. It’s that their Idea is the same one which “the society is raising higher the flag of public, humanism and freedom” which the liberalism nations are aiming.
About handling of the land
A) The considerable prudence is necessary to handle the land which is made the public land at present. In modern China, wealth is unevenly distributed. Foreign capital will also participate. In case of the co-ownership land in the farm village area, after each land becomes private land, if the land of small landowners will be taken up exclusively, the relationship like an old-time peasants and landowners occurs, its situations will become worsening than before. Also, as for the distribution of city areas, the section that performs it has the possibility to become the den of the rights of benefit. The person who tries to get an enormous fortune by reselling obtained land, surely, will also appear. If such a situation occurs, the reform becomes to naught, the gap between the rich and the poor and have-nots and those who have, has the possibility to become more than now. This gap comes to be fastened by the ownership. When such a situation comes to occur in wide China, it is nothing other than the confusion anymore.
B) The zero eight charter is writing as follows. “(We) establish the nation-owned asset management committee which owe responsibility to the highest public opinion agency, and expand legally the reform of the property’s rights by deciding the order, and clarify the attribution destination of property rights and a person in charge.” This is not enough. It is necessary to make the strict penalty regulation to the bribery and corruption. It is necessary to organize the buying and selling chase committee and the watching ethics committee against the above committees. Moreover it is necessary to give the measures that each committee has the authority which can prohibit buying and selling and the resale. Nonetheless, scholar and policy proposal person who speak as spokesman of broker or foreign capital that want to acquire profit by buying and selling the land will be always emerging. The discussion that must be including until its economic effect and it is necessary to perform thoroughly.
C. The words of conclusion
The socialism of China has ended. From now, the people of China will head for the reform of the political system which is the residuum of the socialism. And, the reformers will be going ahead by putting the construction of the society which is raising higher the flag of public, humanism, liberalism in their beliefs that base of their own acts impregnably. Their beliefs are identical to the beliefs of our liberalism nations. And China will achieve further growth.
＊ This sentence is a republishing one that was written on June 23 2013.
A. Freedom and society
The concept (the meaning and the contents which the word contains) of the freedom is the concept which is higher than the concept of the socialism or the communism which appeared so far in the history.
In the freedom society, the human beings have higher sociality than the socialism society and the communism society which have been professed by it-self and which appeared so far in the history, and the freedom society develops into the more higher level.
B. The moral and the good which the freedom societies have.
In the concept of the freedom contains the concept of the moral and the good. Also in the concept of the socialism and the communism too contain the concept of the moral and the good. However, the concept of the moral and the good in the concept of the freedom make a difference from each concept of the socialism and communism.
The forming of the moral and the good in the freedom societies owes to individual human’s spontaneities of their societies. We call these individual human’s spontaneities the independent human beings’ lively activities. Society is formed not only the moral and the good but by the individual human’s spontaneities. And society will always try to open opportunities equally for these human being’s spontaneities (we must do so). We call this liberalism society.
The moral and the good of the freedom society are formed by the individual human’s spontaneities = the independent human beings’ lively activities. As for the freedom society, the general will of the independent human beings becomes a social moral and the good, and it takes effect on the independent human beings again and forms the morality “that should be in this way “. The freedom society is improved with the interaction of these independent human beings’ lively activities and the society, and moves forward.
C. The moral and the good which the socialism, the communism society, or the exclusionism society has.
The moral and the good which the socialism, the communism, or the exclusionism society has are made by a few members or one group in the society.
Their moral and good, in case of the nation, are forced to all the members in society by no passing through the procedure that get approval of social-composition member all the members, or by the suspected procedure.
In these nations , the liberty of the obtaining of information, the free speech, the freedom of academic are restricted, and generally, the opportunities for the voluntary desire of a human are not ” always equal “. We call these societies the society which closed one.
Also, when the moral and the good are done in the one group in the society, their self-identity often appears as aggression against the others, and this is called an exclusionism.
D. The requirements for the liberty
To be liberties, it develops democracy, and the enough discussions to reach an agreement are performed and the system that makes a decision must be always considered.
To avoid a solution of the problem by the violence, it is necessary to let be parliamentarism.
The people grow up, it avoids the politician whom rides populism, sensationalism and collects votes, and the politician who have good morality, who is able to trust to the nation’s fate must be chosen.
E. The one which the liberalism society aims at.
The people and the society move to head toward the beauty and good. In other words, “The way that the people and the society must be is beautiful and good “, this is the one which the liberalism society aims at.
In the realization of this “the people and the society are beautiful and good” society, the liberalism society is the higher society and moreover it is able to prove that it is the society which can aim at the high one more.
＊ This sentence is a republishing one that was written on October 5, 2013. Here is description of self-conviction. I am excepting other contents.
A．What is the self ?
The self is a nature.
All right, the self that is a nature does self-conviction by what?
The self confronts the nature including cities. And by drawing the self explicitly in there and does it.
How does it do any way?
The self chooses the object world ( the field ) which tries to express the self from the inside of the nature that is the world including cities. And the self expresses itself to the world. We call this act an occupation or work. In this act, the self aims the object world at being the good, and at being the beauty. That is, the act of the self must be good.
The self is not only one person in the world. Similarly, there are living other selves. If this is called another person, only with the relation with other persons occurs the relation of the person and the person, and the community is born. In this case, the word of first saying ‘community’ cannot yet have its strict character’s rule, and it says the miscellaneous relation that self and other persons involve. Relationship with the self and other persons is held by mutual respect. The means of keeping this relation is a communication, that is, the dialog.
From here, the first community is reformed to a community that have a group character’s rule from a state that is called “crowd”, and next, it heads for the middle scale community and large community which is a gathering of small communities. And it establishes the nation.
The world is made in this way. The gathering of the self makes the world. And we call the self the independent constituent (= the entity) of the world.
Here, there is the self (the independent constituent=the entity) involved in the way how should be the community, the state, the world.
The system which guarantees this is the democracy. And, the system which guarantees to be being the freedom that human beings (=the independent constituents=the entities) are is the liberalism.
The democracy is a system. Even if a leader of one country, a mission statement of the party, a constitution, declares “Our country is a democracy”, it is not a thing guaranteeing that the country is a democracy nation.
The democracy is, there are elections, multiple political parties and the Parliaments, the Cabinet is composed by members of Parliament that have been elected, is the system that is able to alternate the Cabinet which operates the Government by election. Japan is the State of the Cabinet by the Lawmakers System. There is the State of the Presidential System like the United States, too. The system is clearly stated in the law.
The modern law is made by dialogue and is reformed.
The parliament and elections are the places where the people each other dialogue about the way how should be the state and themselves, and determine it. Therefore, the people comply with these laws which are results of their dialogs, and the people will protect their State system strongly.