An Abdication of current His Majesty the Tennou



An Abdication of current His Majesty the Tennou

White Ume blossoms in the spring sky

*1  This article was uploaded on April 28 in the Japanese version. Japanese honorifics are passive voice in English. I hope that you would be read as one of article that Japanese described the His Majesty the Tennou. Thank you very much for your access.

*2 The words of Emperor and Empress was used in the description of the Kougou who was originally uploaded. In Japan today, if the words of the Emperor and Empress are expressed as the word of the Tennou and Kougou, it does not accurately express the current situation of Japan. I corrected it.

A.An Abdication of current His Majesty the Tennou

1.Current His Majesty the Tennou would be abdicated on April 30th. An era of current His Majesty the Tennou was, -as the Majesty himself would be expressed by his own words, truly, his Majesty the Tennou ownself would be deeply thought of what own existence should be as ‘the symbol of the unity of the people’, and have been shown to our people it by His Majesty own behavior,- was an era.

2.The era of Showa, who is the previous era of current His Majesty the Tennou, inherited the throne of Tennou as a divinity. And in the world trend that had brought the defeat of war, although the Majesty still had been had a consciousness saying “My Government”, he had been had a consciousness of “I” who is existing together the nation’s people. And the Majesty had been acceded to the Tennou that had become ‘the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people’ that said in the Chapter 1 first Article of the Constitution of Japan from the Tennou that had been deified as ‘Akitsumikami’.

3.The current His Majesty the Tennou was always there when we, the hearts of the people, are shook and in hardships. He was in Okinawa. He was on the island of the Pacific Front of the previous Great War. The His Majesty the Tennou’s existence would have been become the existence which, for example, even if I select my mind of an individual who say “I”, when I think of the His Majesty the Tennou’s appearance, which my mind becomes soft. I would think that this is what everyone in the present people thinks. These are gifts of His Majesty’s heart, and I would deeply appreciate to His Majesty’s heart with sincerity of the truth of my heart.

4.And there would be were an appearance of the Her Majesty in the place where the His Majesty the Tennou would be. The Her Majesty would be made the Her Majesty own heart of the His Majesty the Tennou’s heart, and Her Majesty’s dedication to the His Majesty the Tennou would be naturally her dedication to the people, and it also were the Her Majesty’s will. And to this Her Majesty’s heart I would express my deep appreciation with sincerity of the truth of my heart.

B.The beginning of the era of Reiwa

1.The royal prince・Naruhito His Highness would be acceded to the throne on May 1 and would be been the new Tennnou. Everyone strongly hope that the era of Reiwa will be the one that is beautifully harmonious and peaceful era. The royal prince・Naruhito His Highness would be acceded to the throne of Tennou, I would express celebration with exerting my sincerity from the bottom of my heart.

Liberalism course for junior high school students, high school students, No18 -Human has the values in anybodies’ every life that make efforts to live good.-



Human has the values in anybodies’ every life that make efforts to live good.

Cherry Blossoms

Ⅰ.Let’s think that everybody make effort to live for good!

1. “Let’s make effort to live for the good” does not mean religious practice or moral actual practice. “Live for the good” is a state of mind that the religious people who has been trained over and over, or Kant has been reached, and it is not a scope that we ordinary persons of all living beings reach. However, I think that it is good  to have the time to think “Let’s make effort to live for the good”, like we remembered in our daily lives where there is many feeling which were being depressed, or grieving, or being angry. I call this autonomy.

2. And we define the value that describe in this section as “being useful for some object”.

3.Some objects are, ourselves, relatives, cousins, near persons such as relatives, schools, hospitals where we work, schools, government offices, organizations such as companies, and society after getting effects from one place to another, and world.

4. The object for junior high school students and high school students is from you and your parents and families to school. If you have a part-time job, it also includes. Here, first of all, please realize that each and every one of you has the absolute value of being a human resource who will create a society in the future. Everyone is studying. There are students doing club activities. We need effort with both. We need a continuing will that advance toward the object. In here, there is an each value, namely, the value that make an effort, the value that think, the value that show a continuing will which advance toward the object. You and your (student) bag are full of the value. You always carry its bag with you. And you yourself are a mass of value. Remember this always.

5. If there are teachers and friends who are going to destroy this value’s bag and your willingness as a person, you should never take on worries at all alone. Don’t blame yourself by the dilemma you think cannot be solved. Talk to your father or mother. Let’s have your father or mother consult with the principal. Let’s consult with the Board of Education. If there are friends or group who are going to hurt your personality, let’s break up from the friends and group resolutely. Please, don’t hurt yourself by yourself by being troubled about words or cruel treatments that hurt you. They are not your teacher or friends. A true teacher or friend is a person, in the case of a teacher, who is be able to share and sympathize with the values ​​that you have now and the effort that you do now, and the effort that you will be accumulating from now on, and in the case of a friend, is a person who is be able to share.

Ⅱ.My case

1.When I entered university, Japanese universities were in the midst of  disputes by students, and my university was no exception. If I think about it now, the university at that time is the time when the students were swung around by the empty theory of some impractical ideologues. I was no exception, too. I really regret this, and talk, there was a book called “Organization Theory Introduction” by Kanichi Kuroda in the book I read at that time. In the one passage in its book, there was a sentence that “people who are not engaged in production labor and labor do not create value”, and this gave me deep damage in the mind. And this way of thinking is nothing less than the way of thinking that brought about the purge and slaughter of people of mass knowledge group by countries and armed groups that are professing Marxism as science since the birth of the Soviet Union. At that time, I was a student who was attending to the Department of ‘Japanese language and Japanese literature’ of the Faculty of Education, and a student to be impressed with a book of Kiyoshi Oka, but I was ignorant. I who lost sight of my value, after all, dropped out of its university, and I’ve chosen to leave from its course.

2. The way of thinking that “people who do not engage in production labor and labor do not create value” leads to the same way of thinking which Mio Sugita, a member of the House of Representatives, who has recently become a problem, wrote in the August 2018 issue of ‘Shincho 45’, against the people of LGBT, as next, “They do not have a child, that is, they have not ‘productivity’”. Human have dignity and value as human. The fact itself that such descriptions and remarks come out, I think that it is possible to grasp the rigidity of Japanese society as an indicator to be shown on the left side in the case of Mr. Kanichi Kuroda and on the right side in the case of Mrs. Mio Sugita. However, not only “productivity”, but even if “productivity” is replaced with “being useful for some object” which this section placed the standard of value, the similar way of thinking is lying everywhere in the society. And when this make a group or mass, in a case of group, by calling someone a friend, it becomes an implicit agreement to show to be a member of its group that do behaviors who attack its friend, and in the case of mass, in addition in the case of a group, it becomes the unique identity of being a member of its group that attack and expel persons who have doubts about the status of its mass. Unfortunately, such groups exist still by a country unit in the world. However, the way of life for you still young is to think, ‘Be with the good’, and to live, even in such a society and the world. This is the only way to save yourself when you worry, I think.

3. I will keep talking. The talk alone which was only leaving the course is not interesting at all, and I don’t have the qualification to tell you something, I think. However, I have then graduated the Faculty of Economics of another university by correspondence education. After several years, I have made its graduation thesis a new book (Kindai-bungeishya, 2007 publish), entitled ”Marx Criticism, the concept of the individual and kind at Marx-Its critical consideration”. The standing position of this book is the one that take over the concept of “the individual and the kind”, which was told in the 19th century European thought world where Marx lived, to the present day of the 21st century, and I evaluate it by myself that it is occupying in its commensurate position of itself in the history of thought. And in this way I am talking liberalism to you.

4. Round up so as not to be long. The other day, a teacher who would has been achieved a professor’s and dean’s responsibilities of the university which I had attended at first would has been passed away. At its university, I received a tuition payment’s scholarship in the first school year, and the teacher who would has been passed away was the one of the three professors which would has been made an interview at that time. To be given a scholarship is, to say the least, because I was hoped that I would do my best to studies, therefore, I think that I have been sorry to drop out of its university. And for this unachieved consciousness that I did not achieve the expectations of the professors, in my heart, there was a consciousness that life was not connected. And, I attended the funeral that done both the teacher’s farewell ceremony and the first seven days’ Buddhist memorial ceremony, I have stated the apology and condolences with my whole heart. The graduates of the Faculty and department of subject gathered for its ceremony. And I was able to feel, with members, the sense that forgot for a long time, and at the same time, I was able to return to the interrupted course and regain the sense that the interrupted life was connected.

5.This is a lesson for everybody. Do not leave from your course. Please, live with the good.

Liberalism course for junior high school students, high school students, No17 ‐A request and asking about an expression that says the “Nation (=Country)” in NHK’s news and commentaries‐


A request and asking about an expression that says the “Nation (=Country)” in NHK’s news and commentaries

Cherry Blossoms

*This section is stating the five principles of the modern liberal states. Therefore, I make this section ‘Liberalism course for junior high school students, high school students, No17’.

1. Today, I will write in the form of request that one viewer asks about the expression “Nation (=Country)” where announcers and commentators are used in NHK news and commentaries.

2. I had done this request once in a sentence that had written an impression on the NHK’s some program.

3. In Japan, below the Cabinet there are administrative organizations of each Ministries and Offices. Announcers and commentators of NHK would lump together this administrative organizations of the Cabinet, each Ministries and Offices, and would express as the “Nation (=Country)”. Please change this, and if an incident or event is related to the administration, announcers and commentators’ everybody lump together its administrative agencies and don’t express as “Nation (=Country)” but please tell each name to viewers. When we compare by the case of lumping together as the “Nation (=Country)” and by the case of reporting until each Ministries and Offices, those who write news manuscripts and commentators are not allowed to make a false report, so it will take a little time to examine and check each responsible Ministries and Offices. However, if this will be established as the usual form of news coverage and commentary, it will not be a bothering time. And, when NHK’s people provide the news and commentaries relevant to Japanese administrative organizations, if there are internal regulations or customary practices in NHK which let those   administrative organizations lump together as “Nation (=Country)”, please change them.

4. When this attitude is established, Japan will change a little and we will become more wise viewers.

5. If adding it, it is not “Nation (Country) = administrative organization”. The nation (=country) is, that is, there are national people, a territory, and a territorial sea, and the state that the nation (= national people) is establishing sovereignty, freedom, and human rights in the territory and territorial sea which we call it a modern nation. The people, the territory, and the territorial waters are strictly present on a reality. Sovereignty, freedom and human rights are also not abstract concepts. It is an actual concept that shows truly the reality of what kind of country it is. Sovereignty is the existence of the national people who are the sovereigns, and is composed of the constitution, the army, the administrative organization, the economic society and its rules which the national people have. Freedom and human rights are also the  actual concepts that are composed of the constitution, the army, the administrative organization, the economic society and its rules which the national people have. In the modern time, a nation (country) is thus a nation that has the five real entities of national people, territory and territorial sea, sovereignty, freedom, and human rights. We call this the five principles of the modern nation.

6. However, there are not many nations (= countries) that have these five principles in the world. The People’s Republic of China and North Korea, too, prepare the form of a nation (=country). However, both countries lack freedom and human rights and both countries are also  dictatorship nations which controls people and society by those who belong to the dictator and its hierarchy. (Hierarchy: Organization which is divided into each class for dominating, for example: Chinese Communist Party and Korean Labor Party.) In these countries, the relationship between the administrative organization of the country and the party (the ruling party) does not differentiate, and the equation  “country = party organization = administrative organization” holds.

In light of this fact, it is possible to ask that the current NHK press stance may be staying at this level of consciousness, or not. Japan must more develop as a member of the world’s liberalism state.

7. As NHK, please be corresponding an above request and asking and I would want to ask for NHK’s sincere consideration to reform the press attitude and consciousness in the future, as a news agency of a liberalism nation.

Liberalism course for junior high school students, high school students 16 ‐Let’s think public decision making!‐




Let’s think public decision making!

Winter’s trees

This is No. 16 of `Liberalism course for junior high school students, high school students’ which is writing in Japanese. I would upload this.

 

Ⅰ.ublic

A.At first, we will define “public” which this subject use.

 

1.We will define “public” which this subject uses as “a problem which whole people of society have something to do with it or a matter which relates to whole people of the society”.

 

2.That is, the “public” which uses herein means, more than the words “public” and “official” that are contrasted with “private” in society, “more concrete problem and matter which are closely related to the way we live”. And, its “decision making” is the decision about ”a matter which relates to whole people of the society” or “a matter which whole people of the society have relations as a problem of oneselves”. And in here it contains consciousness that “I” is “public”.

 

3.In our words there is the word “I” together with “public” and “official”. And the word “public” or “official” and the word “I” are commonly thought that the content and area of the meaning that the word contains are different. What was able to this standing side by side of words closely relates to human history. Here we think of “I” first.

 

B.”I” who is an individual as a person

 

1.The consciousness of the Japanese “I” = “an individual as a person” have been existing from ancient times more than the era when ‘hiragana’, ‘kanji’ and ‘katakana’ had begun to use as means of human consciousness’s communicating. We think that it is good to think so. Since it began to use characters that are transmitted to the present, for example, “Manyoshu” exists. Here, the thought of individuals from ‘Tennou’ to ‘Sakimori’ and ‘Yomihitosirazu=this is a Waka that has not been knowing its author’s name’ are being expressed in depth of feeling. And there is Ki-no-Turayuki who wrote “Tosa nikki”. There is Sei-Shonagon who wrote “Makura-no-sousi”. There is Murasaki-Shikibu who wrote “Genji monogatari”. ‘Waka’ connected to ‘Haiku’, ‘Senryuu’, and ‘Monogatari’ and ‘Nikki’ connected to the ‘human sympathy books’, ‘comical story books’, ‘journey books’ of Edo era. When we view different fields, in the field of crafts, the swordsmith carved his name in the sword and was proud of his skill. Carpenter, painter, gardener, fabric master, dyer, craftsman and ceramist were proud of themselves skills of artisan, and left many architectures and works in posterity. Actors of Noh, Kyogen, and Kabuki will take over the name of the old actor. In addition, the martial warriors compete for their brave names, asking his way, raising school, further, tea ceremony and flower arrangement are handed down as ’tea ceremony’ and ’flower arrangement’ to present day. In addition, in the battle of the Middle Ages, the brave prided himself in proclaiming his name in a large voice. And people also enshrined a person who have worked hard and rendered remarkable achievements for the village and the area. In any of these, individual consciousness and thought are strongly reflected in the works and achievements produced in there, and we can say that each work and each achievement which each one searches are made by each individual’s consciousness (thought). This is the basics of the viewpoint for human consciousness and society in the liberal society.

 

C.”Public”

 

1.So how about “public”? Here we will take up “Nintoku-Tennou” who “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki” both Praise up “Holy Emperor”. The description of when and how the achievements of ancient times which Nintoku-Tennou had done are different in “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki”.

 

2.”Kojiki” writes in the section of “Nintoku-Tennou” as follows. I will copy it somewhat simpler. “In the era of this Tennou, five places’ “Be” as “Minasiro (= it have each name and it is like people and territory engaged in a certain occupation)” for empress and the respective prince were decided. In addition, making ‘Hatabito (=people who become naturalized to Japan) work, built a dike of ‘Manda’, a ‘Miyake (=cereal warehouse and land) of ‘Manda’, a ‘Wani’ pond, and a ‘Yosami’ pond, and digging up ‘Nanba’s Horie’ and connecting it to the sea, furthermore digging up inlet of ‘Obashi’ set a port of ‘Suminoe’. At this time, Tennou were climbed the mountain, looked around a country of the four sides, and were said to the following. “There is no (people’s cooking) smoke in the country. People of all are poor. Therefore, from now to three years, exempt the tax and labor of people.” By this, the main sanctuary house (main house of the palace) broke and it began to leak out rainwater. However, it was put as it was without being repaired. And the country came to fill with smoke of people’s cooking, so Tennou was thought that people became rich, and was ordered the tax and labor. By this, people flourished and were not to suffer to the tax and labor.

 

3.In “Nihon Shoki”, the descriptions above 2. write in the following order. a) When “Oujin-Tennou” was called to the demise, its time’s Crown Prince was trying to give the throne to ‘Osazaki-no-mikoto’ (= Nintoku-Tennou), however ‘Osazaki-no-mikoto’ was also declined. After this lasted three years, Crown Prince was called to the demise, ’Nintoku-Tennou’ was acceded to the throne. b) In the spring February of 4 years from acceding to the throne, Tennou was said to Tennou’s retainers, “There is no smoke that the people cook. Farmers are already poor”, and in March of the same year, Tennou was ordered to exempt the tax and labor of the people for 3 years. From this day, even if the palace’s fence collapsed and the roof’s kaya broke, they were not renewed. c) In the third year, the staple grains became good harvest, the people became rich, the cheerful voice was filled and a lot of cooking smoke came to stand up. d) (Nintoku, hereinafter the same) In April of 7 years, Tennou went up to the plateau and was seen a situation that smoke have occurred to a long distance, was talked with the Empress, that day, and was talked as follows. “Behold, it is for the farmers’ sake that the heaven stand a heaven’s monarch, therefore, the monarch bases on the farmers of its country. By this, the ancient holy monarch blames himself on thinking of its situation, when people, even alone, is starving and freezing. Now, the poverty of people is my poverty. It is that people become rich is that I become rich. People become rich, thereby it is not yet that the monarch is still poor.” In August of the same year, ‘Mibube (“Be”: see above) ‘ was established for one prince, and ‘Kazurakibe’ was established for ‘Empress’. e) In October of 10 years, Tennou was ordered the tax and labor to the people. f) In October of 11 years, digging the wilderness which is applicable to the suburbs on the north side of a palace, and drawing water from the river in the south, thereby people let it flow to the west sea. This waterway is called Horie. At this time, the levee of ‘Manda’ was built. g) In October of 12 years, digging a large waterway in the ‘Kurukuma-no-agata’ of ‘Yamasiro’, thereby people poured water to the paddy fields. h) In September of 13 years, ‘Manda-no-Miyake’ was built. In October, a ‘Wani’ pond was built and a dike of ‘Yokono’ was built. i) In November of ’14 years, people built a bridge across ‘Ikai-no-tu’. It says ‘Obashi’ that named there. In the same year, people built a big road from the southern gate in Kyoto to ‘Tazihi Mura’, and dug a large waterway at ‘Komuku’. The waterway pull water of ‘Ishikawa’, thereby people let ‘Kami-suzuka’, ‘Simo-suzuka’, ‘kami-toyoura’, ‘Simo-toyoura’ moisten and could get more than 40,000 rice fields.

 

4.Here, we do not make an issue of the difference between “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki”. What is essential is that the editor of “Nihon Shoki” that wrote the words of Ⅰ-C-3 as the words of “Nintoku-Tennou’ had explicitly the consciousness that say, ‘what is Public? ‘. It is our duties that we notice its consciousness. I will write that word again. “Behold, it is for the farmers’ sake that the heaven stand a heaven’s monarch, therefore, the monarch bases on the farmers of its country. By this, the ancient holy monarch blames himself on thinking of its situation, when people, even alone, is starving and freezing. Now, the poverty of people is my poverty. It is that people become rich is that I become rich. People become rich, thereby it is not yet that the monarch is still poor.”

 

5.We call ‘Public’ a society where people are rich. And, in modern times, we say it that the society where “people become rich”, at the same time, where “people are free” and where “the rights of people are establishing”. Here, I do not write “the society which people become rich and the country is rich”. It is because, there are bureaucratic organizations in the country since ancient times, it is not synonymous words that a situation which officials become rich and a situation which a country is rich. And because, if it is misunderstood that a situation which bureaucrats become rich is a situation which the country is rich, there are distortions in its society. Also, the form of the nations is merely one form of the society of its time to time.

 

D.Region of “I” who is contrasted with “Public”

 

1.The region of “I” saying here is different from “I” who is describing in the above B. The “I” mentioning in B is the one that born the region of “I” saying here, and also the one which gave rise to the region of “Public”. And, the consciousness of the modern “I” is proceeding to “I” which integrates (unifies) region of “I” who is contrasted with “Public” and the region of “Public”, the author of this blog is thinking so.

 

2.Speaking by Japanese history, when the system of the King to try to rule the Japanese Archipelago as a society with a single unit established, the region of ​​”I” who is contrasted with “Public” existed as the powerful clan’s regions. And the powerful clans tried to protect the self region of clanselves from this king and institution. And the new Yamato Court (Jinmu-Sujin Court) was established by Jinmu Tennou’s Eastern Expedition.

[Digression]:

As already I am clarifying in this blog, Jinmu‐Tennou and Sujin‐Tennou would be the same person, or parent and child, or, brothers. In my opinion, “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki” wrote the process of the Eastern Expedition as the achievement of Jinmu‐Tennou, and, wrote the period since Jinmu‐Tennou was acceded to the throne as the achievement of Sujin‐Tennou. I’m certain of it. However, “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki” describe the mausoleum hill of Jinmu‐Tennou and Sujin‐Tennou. When this mausoleum hill is proved to be the mausoleum of Jinmu‐Tennou, Jinmu‐Tennou and Sujin‐Tennou would be parent and child, or, brothers. I will add to write a little more. Jinmu‐Tennou was taken over the dynasty of Nigihayahi no mikoto (= Ohnamuchi no Kami = Ohkunimushi no mikoto = Kougen‐Tennou) who would be a same imperial line as Jinmu‐Tennou himself and was built a new dynasty (This is a Jinmu-Sujin Court. If we think that one era of one person’s Tennou would have two era names, it is easy to understand this Jinmu-Sujin Court.). Therefore, when we think of the fact of history, it has consistency that Sujin‐Tennou was respected Japanese deities who would be the ancestors of Sujin‐Tennou and Nigihayahi no mikoto. Junior high school students and high school students who are reading this, please let it beat into yours heads that Jinmu‐Tennou would be been a person who existed strictly as a Tennou, not a myth or a legendary Tennou as many scholars had told. However, current schools do not teach a history like this. You have to learn what you are taught at school and then think of on your own.

 

3.Next, in times from ‘Jinmu-Sujin Court’ to ‘Taika no kaishin’, the ‘Ohjin Court’ was established and fell, and it was succeeded to ‘Keitai Court’, and there was a battle between ‘Mono no be’ clans and ‘Soga’ clans. And then, ‘Soga’ clans fell by ‘Taika no kaishin’. The fundamental structure of society of this era, we can think it to have existed as the regions of the powerful clans who were still trying to protect their regions of clanselves against the request for control and order of the Tennou who had stronger power than previous era. It is the same structure as the early ancient times. And, by ‘Taika no kaishin (Ixtusi no hen 645)’, Japan was coming to show the appearance of a nation which had ‘Rituryo (=laws and ordinances)’. Their laws and ordinances were Ohmi-ryo 668, Family registers making 670, Asuka-kiyomigahara-ryo 689, Taiho-rituryo 701, and Youro-rituryo 757. The consciousness that let perform these reforms is, certainly, the consciousness of “Public” that the editor of “Nihon Shoki” that we saw in 3-d and 4 described as the Nintoku‐Tennou’s words. And, this consciousness of “Public” became the “Public” which Yamato Court aimed until ‘Syouen’ appeared by a law of ”Konden-einen-sizaihou (743)’. At the same time, what formed the region of “I” is the ‘Syouen’.

 

4.”Syouen” arised by setting the land that was under the control of the powerful clans before ‘Taika no kaishin’ at the ‘Kouden (=public land)’, in addition, by allowing the land-pioneer to possess the land that newly opened. And its transition brought about a fierce battle over the land (and its products) in Japan, and converged to the Tokugawa Baku-han systems. And the point to keep in mind here is that the Tokugawa Bakuhu got the legal basis which could consist its Baku-han systems through the procedure of the ‘Rituryou’ of the Yamato court. When we say what kind of mean this is, when Ieyasu Tokugawa established the ‘Bakuhu’ at 1603, he was appointed to the “Seiitaisyougun (This position can be considered as taking over the ‘Four roads Shogun’ who were dispatched to the Hokuriku, Tokai, West (Harima, Kibi), Tanba at the time of ‘Soujin Court’, we think so.)” and the ‘Udaijin’ which was one of the highest Executive of Court, from the Court. Ieyasu can obtain the military presiding rights all over Japan by ‘Seii-taisyougun’s position’. At the same time, he also gained the appointing rights of the ‘Daimyo’, ‘Syoumyou’ of the various ‘Han’, which is the military organization. At the same time, Ieyasu Tokugawa was also the ‘Udaijin’ of   Court, so his administration obtained a legal (law of Rituryou) ground that his administrations were governing as the ‘Udaijin’ of the Court. This is the basic structure of the Edo Era. In addition, Ieyasu promulgated “Kinchuu-narabini-kugesyohaxtuto (1615)” which Zen-kanpaku Akizane Nijyou, Shogun Hidetada Tokugawa, and Zen-shogun Ieyasu Tokugawa signed jointly, then Ieyasut kept the Tennou completely away from politics. However, even among such trends of history, the Tennou was kept its existence as the successor to the Tennou’s throne, Japan has got the Tokugawa Era’s end.

 

E.From Meiji to the defeat of the great war ahead

 

1.Due to the ‘Meiji Ishin’ (=Meiji Restoration), Japan made the Constitution which Meiji-Tennou was declared and promulgated, and the Japanese people became the Tennou’s ‘Sinmin (= subjects)’. Also, Tennou was gained the governance right of Japan and the command right of the Army and Navy. When I read this Constitution (former Constitution = “the Constitution of the Empire of Japan”) again and tell about an impression thinking frankly now, this Constitution can be said that it had been becoming to the wartime’s Constitution that was conscious of Japan’s imminent crisis and that it had become to the Constitution that responded with crisis consciousness of then people. It may be said that this reflected the sense of tension placed by Japan at the end of Edo Era and the beginning of Meiji Period. Under this constitution, Japan could win when the confronting country was Qing Dynasty, Romanov Dynasty and so on, and when the region was a limited war. However, in the case of a modern state where the confronting countries were the United States of America or the UK, especially in the all-out war with the United States, Japan saw the overwhelming difference in industrial power of the both country, therefore, Japan had defeated.

 

2.Why Japan lost, why Japan had the reckless war, why Japan made the reckless military operations, I think of. However, since I am not a military officer, I cannot know the consciousness of a general officer who is the current staff developing the war strategies and military operations of the SDF. However, when I take a view of the Tennou system from the ancient era to the Meiji times, there is an impression that the consciousness of the so-called ‘Daihonei’ and military officers before the war might have been something near to the consciousness of the ‘Seiigun’. It is to send the forces at another country, it is to procure the foods and other necessaries locally by the sending forces, and it is to govern the another country by the sending forces. Today’s battles, even regional battles by the United States, cannot easily win the victory. Weapons to overwhelm the enemy, logistics, supply are necessary. And Japan should not isolate.

 

F.Today

 

1.Due to the defeat in World War II, Japan obtained the current “The Constitution of Japan”, following the procedure of revising the former Constitution. In this Constitution, Tennou would be become the symbol, and the Japanese people became a person who is a sovereign. “The Constitution of Japan” is an excellent constitution that writes a subject of the Constitution as the Japanese people who has a sovereignty to each person.

 

2.At the present age, the region of “I” which is contrasted with “Public” that describes in the D, have changed to enterprises (companies) which are collecting money (capital), and using its money, thereby creating the goods, facilities and businesses. Then, the enterprises (companies) perform businesses organizally that aim to gain the profits by providing the people of society that seek the goods and services enterprise-selves create. We call this enterprise (company) “a juridical person” by the law. There are various enterprises in the juridical person. Companies that are the private enterprise aiming to gain the profits, in addition, Public corporation, Corporation (a corporate juridical person), Foundation (Nonprofit corporation), NPO corporation, Government finance, Fund (Foundation), Depository, Bank (Bank of Japan), Public corporation, Organization, Association, Alliance society, Troupe, Association (Society), Agency (Corporation), Chamber (Conference・Council), Union, there are many. Therefore, here we will represent each association and organization that includes private enterprises conveniently by one name, and make it an “enterprise”. Here, each private enterprise, association and organization becomes enterprise 1, enterprise 2, enterprise 3, ——-, enterprise ∞ respectively. These enterprises’ definition is, because even non-profit corporations also have to make profits for the survival of them, so we will use the same contents that mentioned earlier in this section and do it as ‘The definition 1 of enterprise’.

 

3.At today, it is said that the enterprise is ‘the vessel of society’. And enterprises that cannot benefit society cannot survive. This is the definition 2 of the enterprise. Here we will define the enterprise once more again.

 

Enterprise

Definition 1: Enterprise (company) is an organization or association which is collecting money (capital), and using its money, thereby creating the goods, facilities and businesses. Then, an enterprise (company) performs businesses organizally that aim to gain the profits by providing the people of society that seek the goods and services enterprise-self create. And, an enterprise (company) repeats this working (business) by year through year throughout the year.

 

Definition 2: The enterprise is ‘the vessel of society’, and an enterprise that cannot benefit society cannot survive.

 

4.Then, how about an individual? Nowadays, if we upload our current situation, opinions, and performance which we want to appeal to our own page such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and other social networking services (SNS) or WordPress, people can read and watch it. And people can write their opinions or impressions at there. Such individual is exactly a character who he and she is in Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and if a young mother uploads her child’s lunch box on there it is a kind of self-assertion that she projects her world through a child’s lunch box, we can say. There are also the crimes here, the infections by the virus are always accompanied, and here is not necessarily a safe place, but the individual’s world goes to be getting rid of the bulkheads that had been between the world. This continues in the future. It can be said that the internet realizes the role of “Anywhere door” of Doraemon. Here, a region of the individual and the world are very close, but, even if saying so, a region of individual who expresses in there can be finally there after being evaluated from the world. Let’s think of such an individual’s further private region. There is little thing to hide at there, this is not limited to the internet, but especially, the characteristics of the person become to its person’s personality on the internet, and by expressing it on the internet, the circle of empathy which obtains at there becomes more bigger so as to be incomparable with the world without the internet. The good quality stories such as ‘The story of fight against illness’, ‘The story of strenuous efforts’ and ‘The success story’ will surely call for people’s empathy. Conversely, people who have something to conceal under their contents that they represent or express on the internet are phishing scammers or criminals who plot the evil deeds, it can be said that they are the human beings of class who cannot live in the public world. And, in modern times, the class of people who have excessive money or power, for avoiding tax or hiding income, possess an account in a tax avoidance area called ‘Tax Haven’ and this class people have the ‘private regions’ which are hidden, and it may be said that it is thought that they often have the hidden regions of private. But, what we should not forget here is to have money is necessary. Even now and old days, we can do nothing without money. And, by using its money, such as we write by ‘The definition 2 of enterprise’ in the 3 of this section, to be of use to the society, we increase more money and we should also become rich ourselves.

 

Ⅱ.An assignment

 

1.From the description of the Ⅰ, I think that it comes to be able to understand why excellent young people choose the way of entrepreneurs in the USA. If you cannot understand it is an assignment. I do not mention the roles of people who affiliate with the work of the Japanese Cabinet, ministries, prefectures, municipalities, but think of their roles, please think still further.

 

Ⅲ.The secession from IWC (International Whaling Commission)

 

A.Decision of the Japanese Government

 

1.The Japanese government decided to withdraw from the International Whaling Commission (IWC) and to resume commercial whaling from July 2019, by the Council of Cabinet decided on 25 December of last year (2018), and on the following 26th, Suga Chief Cabinet Secretary announced. It says to limit the area of commercial whaling to Japan’s Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone.

 

a.Was this decision made through public discussions and decision making process in Japan?

 

b.Also, is this decision make people rich, conforming to the definition of “public” which we discussed by above the I – C – 5?

 

‘Public’

Definition 1: We say ‘Public’ is the society which people are rich, free and people are establishing people-selves rights.

 

c.And, does this decision make our own flesh and blood of our own lesson that Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in a process leading to World War II and isolated and defeated?

 

d.Then, does this decision conform to the spirit of “conservation of nature, protection of animals” which is the trend of good sense of people of the world?

 

e.Still further, does the ‘food culture’ which is said in the town become to a reason for resuming commercial whaling?

 

f.Each are all no.

 

Ⅳ.An assignment 2

 

1.Please think about how we should perform the decision making that are public and its process.

 

 

Cancer immunotherapy formulation · Opdivo




Cancer immunotherapy formulation · Opdivo

 

Sky of October

 

Kyoto University of Japan, Special professor Tasuku Honjyo would be received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Prize. About “Discovery of ‘PD-1 antibody’ that utilizes immune cells which human body have original for cancer treatment”, and this is the reason that Honjyo professor would be received the Prize, this article is describing its mechanism. This article is a part of Japanese version’s blog of April 23, 2018, and its blog states opinions to a report which a securities analyst performed rating on April 17, 2018 for the stock price of Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. in Japan. This article would introduce Honjyo professor’s achievements and introduce the challenges of cancer immunotherapy which is the current research subject.

 

A.Opdivo (Nivolumab)

 

1.Opdivo (Nivolumab) is an anti-cancer drug developed by Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. together Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (Hereafter, abbreviated as BMY Company). What is revolutionary is that in the past anti-cancer treatment was mainly based on resection and chemotherapy or scientific therapy, but Opdivo (Nivolumab) is an immunotherapy that helps the human body inherent immunity. This is the first formulation in the world to be made by “PD-1 antibody” which Kyoto University’s Professor Tasuku Honjyo would be discovered.

 

2.When cancer cells are formed, the human immune cells (killer) T cells attack cancer cells and are coming to keep the human body a normal state. At this time, a substance (receptor) called “PD-1” is expressed on the T cell surface. However, in order to protect cancer cellselves from T cells, cancer cells express specific substances (ligands: substances that specifically bind to specific receptors) on the surface of cancer cells, bind T cells, cancer cells try to take in T cells. The ‘ligand’ which this cancer cells issue is a substance called “PD-L1, PD-L2”. And then, when the “PD-1” receptor of the T cell binds to the ligand “PD-L1, PD-L2″ of the cancer cell, the T cell stops attacking the cancer cell, allow growth of cancer.

 

3.”PD-1 antibody” prevents T cell receptor “PD-1” from binding to ligand “PD-L1, PD-L2” of cancer cells and makes its original immune function of T cells exert. This is called immunotherapy. However, at this time, when T cells head for other organs and cells, side effects of autoimmune diseases occur.

 

B.Issues of Cancer Immunotherapy

 

1. The following is a summary of the research subject of “PD-1” project team of Kyoto University Graduate School, School of Medicine, Immune and medicine laboratory (Honjyo laboratory).

 

a.Response efficiency of the therapeutic effect with the ’PD-1 antibody’ alone is 20 to 30%.

 

b.Depending on cancer type, combined use of “CTLA-4 antibody” dramatically improves the response efficiency of the treatment to 50~60%.

note;

“CTLA-4 antibody”; There is a substance called “CTLA-4” that suppresses the action of T cell which exists as a receptor of T cell similar to PD-1 receptor. “CTLA-4 antibody” binds to this CTLA-4 receptor, suppresses the action of CTLA-4, and activates the action of T cells. The PD-1 receptor binds to and is taken up by cancer cells, but the CTLA-4 receptor binds to macrophages or substances called CD80, CD86 of dendritic cells and becomes inactive. This “CTLA-4 antibody” was commercialized as Yervoy (ipilimumab) by BMY Company.

 

c.About patient who is unresponsive to “PD-1 antibody” therapy, this cause hasn’t been discovering yet.

 

d.The mechanism of response / nonresponse to “PD-1 antibody” and the development and exploration of biomarkers to distinguish it are important.

 

e.Immune responses of PD-1 are deeply involved in metabolism and are important for maintaining the fundamental homeostasis of life.

 

f.From now on, it is necessary to understand the principle of life phenomena from a new viewpoint fusing immunity and metabolism.

 

One Reuters article




One Reuters article

 

Seeing in the distance Makuhari’s buildings

 

This article is English translation of Japanese version uploaded on June 28, 2018.

 

A.America · Nevada Province, Republican candidate nomination election at Lower House election of Legislature of Province

 

1.On June 26, 2018, Tim Reid reporter of Reuters is writing as follow; a 71-year-old man named Dennis Hof, who is acknowledging “Pimp (pimp ・prostitution broker)” in the Republican candidate nomination election of Lower House election of Legislature of Province, Nevada province, acquired its nomination. His political leap forward shows that the consciousness of the voters has undergone fundamental change in the “President Trump era”, not only the Republican Party was scratched but also that the US politics was turned over.

 

2.It says that Mr. Hof has three times divorce history, wrote a book titled “Aesthetics of pimp”, and runs one strip club and five legal brothels. Moreover, it says that he advertises a catch copy calling “Pahrump’s (Par ump’s) Trump” and is in the election. Las Vegas is to the east of Pahrump district at about 50km. Carson City is in the northwest. On the map of Google it is a desert area which four directions are surrounded by mountains.

 

3.Furthermore, when reading the article, 4 houses out of 5 houses of Mr. Hof ‘s brothels are located in Lyon County located east of Carson City. And Reuters interviewed at Carson City suburbs. For these reasons, his economic base is not in the Pahrump district, perhaps Mr. Hof gains the support of church by donations, or by bringing the action to solve the problem which secure water in the desert region, it seems to be spreading the support of Republican Party’s Evangelists to the state area of Nevada.

 

4.It is the main subject. The reporter writes as next about the reality which Mr. Hof who is living in the world of “Pimp”, but it is the Legislature of Province of America, is about to wear the shoes of the political world. Republican supporters based on traditional evangelical churches, especially many conservative Christians, say, ‘ We are losing trust to the Republican Establishment, and they are not fighting to defend the value which is threatened in modern America.’ How do we think about this?

 

5.If we would think of Jesus’ gospel, it is Jesus who had been saved Maria, who had been stoned, and it is Maria who had been applied for Jesus Jesus feet the last perfume oil. Women are the existences to be saved. How and what this salvation is to do, a lot of discussion has been doing in the United States, don’t you? One is a social relief, one is a salvation based on faith.

 

6.Republican and Democratic people who have been involved in the American society and its direction of institution to be have been doing many social reliefs. And there is a current system. And the thought of this American institutional design what was it like? As one of this index, we can show “What’s the Right Thing to do?”, which is a book of Harvard University, Professor Michael Sandel. And as the other index, we can show “THE WARRIORS REFLECTIONS ON MEN IN BATTLE”, which is a book of J. Glenn Gray. The former is a book which asks the choice of reality under the idea of justice, the latter is a book which wrote real reflections of a soldier who was under the Europe Front in World War II. And in the comparison between the former and the latter, the latter, which is a record of behaviors which act in a real way reacting to various situations occurring around himself as a soldier in front of the battlefield of the front of his eyes, the latter is superior in reality.

 

7.And, the reality which this America’s justice cannot correspond to various situations that arises in the reality is producing “Pahrump’s Trump”. It can think so. But even so, it is not good that American justice is replaced of by old American values such as Mr. Hof. Mr. Hof is as an owner of old-American values, he needs humility which fears God and wish for maximum happiness of women, this article thinks so. The same is true for Pahrump’s Evangelists. Christians in Nevada should abolish the public prostitute’s houses in the state and start the movements for women’s salvation. It is the way of the Christians. And it is a real road. I think so.

Realities which are coming to be obvious from the debts of local cities in the People’s Republic of China




Realities which are coming to be obvious from the debts of local cities in the People’s Republic of China

 

Sunset sky & city’s street

This article is English translation of the Japanese version uploading on July 31, 2018.

 

A.The groups unfinished skyscrapers in Tianjin

 

  1. On June 15, Reuters is reporting on the unfinished buildings groups in Tianjin City, “The rips in the economies of Tianjin are occurring.” In the cities and local cities of the People’s Republic of China, it is no wonder that there are unfinished building groups and roads, or facilities which were made for some use but not fulfilling their use. In their economic calculations, they are admirable goods and works-in-progress, and they may be wondering why we call them ghost towns. In fact, in our economic calculations, too, there are calculations which we sort like so as the completion constructions or unfinished constructions, product goods, parts, works-in-progress for buildings and goods, therefore their time scale is different, maybe. However, such rough calculations must be kept in their country alone. Their vision which they call “One Belt, One Road”, too, to put it simply, is the theory that expands from China to Central Asia and West Asia the theory which had been advocated by the former Prime Minister of Japan Tanaka Kakuei in 1972. And it was called “The Japan Islands Remodeling Theory”. Their intention is in infrastructure constructions which they make main force of them and making their profit. (If we express this with economic terms aesthetically, it is to gain the revitalization and ripple effects for regional economies through infrastructure constructions.) And, what kind of this real example is it, let’s take a small country, Sri Lanka which exists on the vision of “One Belt, One Road”. Sri Lanka built a port (Hambantota port) with a construction cost of approximately $ 1.3 billion. Its construction was financed by the People’s Republic of China with 85% of the construction cost (It is said that the annual interest is 6, 3%), and construction was carried out by the country-owned enterprise of the People’s Republic of China, ‘China Port and Harbor Process Public Corporation (zhōng/zhòng guó gǎng wān gōng chéng gōng sī 中国港湾工程公司)’. However, in repaying this loan, in the end, Sri Lanka signed a contract last year to lend out 80% of the stock of the port management company to company of the People’s Republic of China for 99 years at about $ 1.1 billion. Let’s call this the business of People’s Republic of China style. This is the methods that has not changed since ancient times, these are the methods themselves that vicious merchants subjugate the poor by peeling off the clothing of poor, squeeze poor earnings from the poor, degrade to the male and female servants, slaves, harlot. I may have been coming overestimated the People’s Republic of China. Even in this blog, before, I wrote as “The end of the socialism” but maybe that China did not even exist its socialism. Also, considering “One Belt, One Road”, AIIB (Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank) was established, but it seems like the pheromone of infrastructure construction led by the People’s Republic of China. And, as for the plan that the People’s Republic of China shows, its corresponding countries must be thoughtful enough. For example, in the case of trunk roads or railroad construction, the countries located on the way of the cities of the starting and ending points have to work with doing good judgment; what kind of plan is, and it can be really realized, who bears the construction cost of home country route, if constructions are financings, who will do the loan, its loan is fair or not. Otherwise, on the time axis of economic calculation in the People’s Republic of China, when the progress of construction depends on the section, the bridge and the iron bridge have completed in country A, however by the case of all routes, there may occur circumstances that say that the prospect of completion cannot make. In this case, if A country has a city that is a hub connecting Central Asia and West Asian cities, the completed bridge will be able to connect to those road networks and will be beneficial in those economic zones. If these bridges and iron bridges have built over the canyon, and if the operation of these bridges awaits completion of the construction section of another country B, how country A will be able to make the next step? Moreover, the line of country B has become the ‘Deadline’ which even the plan of construction cannot make by circumstances of country B. And the debt of infrastructure construction heavily has remained in country A. So what shall we do? Shall we apply for this bridge or iron bridge, to the future world heritage as the remains of the 21st century? Even if I write like this, this is not a satire. It can be predicted as a reality that actually happens. And there is a possibility that country A will be the second and third Sri Lanka. However, this result will satisfy the original intention of the leaders of the People’s Republic of China. They have further increased their ruling country by financing of construction fund and its long-term loan.

 

B.Proceeding of creditize (retention of claim right) to Chinese land by enterprises

 

  1. Today’s main subject is not “One Belt, One Road”. Let’s get back to the subject.

 

  1. Reuters writes.

a)Some country-owned enterprises in Tianjin are under debt default or they are being chased for raising of money for debt repayment.

b)In the financial institutions, it is appearing some financial institutions which are refusing loans to local enterprises.

c)This has been arising according as the Chinese government tightens high-risk loans and restrains bad loans.

d)The finance affairs of Tianjin is getting worse due to the restraint of real estate investment.

e)Tianjin has relied the debt interest payment which has caused by the construction boom on the income earned by the sale of the land use right.

f)Local officials said the debt problem of Bang-hai (the name of the development project area in Tianjin City) is serious but it is possible to “solve” 40% of the debt by expanding the sale of the land.

 

  1. Reuters does not reveal the news source that said the sale of land in 2 – f) above. But what is spoken here is not limited to city in Tianjin, but in the People’s Republic of China, the retentions of claim (right) to land are proceeding by the enterprises, it is able to say that its situation will proceed further.

Thinking of ‘Bitcoin’

Thinking of ‘Bitcoin’

 

Now, budding old cherry tree

* This article is an English translation of the Japanese version uploaded on February 12, 2018.

 

A.Prologue

        1. This story is about an event there was in the past. There were study groups for each high-tech sector which Industry Promotion Division of Chiba Prefecture and Industrial Support Technology Institute of Chiba Prefecture promoted and proceeded. In one of these groups, I think that it was probably the internet study group, a young man had been made a presentation about Money. I thought its money to have possibilities to become the community money, that is, there is a community or other community, and among individuals making up these communities, individual people do and therefore the amount of various labor which belongs to individuals, (that is, the amount of reward that can earn by working), and, as a currency that can show the amount of value born by production, (that is, the amount of value of all things, cars, personal computers, tableware, accessories, machines, robots, trains, planes, ships, rockets, space crafts, etc.), its money will be able to replace conventional money, I thought so. There is a memory that I sent its impressions to its man. And, it would be seemed that this man who was still young in those days had been developed the ‘Bit coin’.

 

        1. Next, recently, there was a news that an exchange named “Coin check” which exchanges virtual currency was hacked, and virtual currency “NEM” equivalent to 58 billion yen was stolen. And the responsible persons of this exchange say they are saying that they will refund to people who bought “NEM”. However, the refund rate is said to be 48 billion yen which is lowered by the theft. (The payment request from customers on February 9 is about 30 billion yen.) This is a strange story. The difference of “investment amount” – “refund amount” is remaining at the hand of the people of “Coin check”. How much money the investors exchanged for “NEM”? The responsible officials of the “Coin check” will indicate their intention to refund the money which exchanged at its time and they will have to make that effort.

 

B. The main subject

        1. I will write two episodes as a prologue and think about ‘Bit coin’ a little. Currently, the community of ’Bit coin’ is made up of participants who exchanged currencies such as yen and dollar to the ’Bit coin’ on the Internet. Among those participants, there would be many people that say, ‘I bought ‘Bit coins’ for speculation purposes, therefore I do not intend to participate in the community.’ However, it is a community including those people.

 

        1. Next, does a ‘Bit coin’ secure its value by what? Virtual currency, including ‘Bit coin’, outsiders like me cannot know its actual situation; who is issuing them in the system, who and how is collecting ‘Bit coin’ for exchange, and whether anyone can run an Exchange, and whether the issuing office also can use as an Exchange. But, what I can understand a little by reading it is that all transactions of ‘Bit coins’ on the network have the same content the record of “ledgers” written in the same way on a computer of a plurality of volunteer companies, therefore by all the plural “ledgers” having the same contents they prove its all transactions. ’Bit coin’ insists on the correctness of its own “ledgers” with the existence of this network, that is, a system (block chain) that can track all transactions without a defect. And this is a guess, but among the plurality of individual computers, it seems that ‘number of bits’ of the first computer which established the “ledger” calculation at first required are given as ‘Bit coins’ to this computer. This is calling ‘mining’. By the way, it seems that electricity used for transactions of ’Bit coins’ are 48 tera・wh / year (equivalent to the power consumption of 4.4 million homes in the US) (February 9, New York, Reuters). Here, even though the correctness of the “ledgers” is told, no value is given yet.

 

        1. The people who give value to ‘Bit coin’ are people (including corporations) who participate in this network by exchanging cash and ‘Bit coins’. However, unfortunately, ‘Bit coin’ is currently considered to be object of speculation and does not yet acquire the status of money. Besides, it is virtual money on the network. It may be that it ends like the tulip speculation of the Netherlands. What we should do?

 

        1. I am a one person who is thinking that money in the world is not enough. If I say so, you may laugh by saying that money circulating in the world is overflowing like a flood. However, it is a story in the developed countries and major countries, it is actually not enough in the poor developing country. At first, I thought next, if a country of the backward region such as Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Middle East will issue a real currency like a yen or dollar which have a unit name of ‘bit’, it is good. However, a country that is a military and dictator nation like North Korea is never an object. Though, there were some Web articles saying that North Korea is also involved on ’mining’. However, anyways, at area excluding such military and dictatorship nations, we will finance the money which collected by speculative elements of ‘bit coin’ to countries that aim for the development as a democratic liberal state, and when people of their countries use its money for developing their countries and enriching themselves, there will be no speculative elements of ‘bit coins’, the elements of public investment will be stronger, and an institution to supervise this will also be needed. In this way, if we prepare second stage of ‘bit coin’ and go into it, it will be good, I thought so.

 

C. The worries of society to virtual currency

        1. Now, the remarks of economists and monetary policymakers to the virtual currency are increasing. China already banned trading. German and French Finance Ministers and the Central Bank Governor expressed at the next G20 that they should discuss the policy of the virtual currency and the financial impact (Berlin, 9 February, Reuters).

 

        1. Certainly, looking at the transaction price (Exchanges: ’Bit fryer’) of ‘Bit coins’ carried on NHK’s NEWS WEB (February 11, 2018), the price of about 100,000 yen / 1 ‘Bit coins’ at the beginning of last year (2017) exceeds 2 million yen in December and it became about 1.25 million yen in January, and so on, price is becoming erratic fluctuations. On the site called CryptoCompare, the price of today (Japan time · February 12 · 16:10) is 926846, 06 yen.

 

        1. In the case of stocks, the economic activities of the company assure its value. In the case of virtual currency, there is nothing. Even in the case of Japan only, the fact we can guess from the theft of ‘NEM’ which corresponds 58 billion yen is the fact that the Shops and Exchanges of the virtual currency across Japan will be pooling a huge amount of money.

 

D. One trial thinking

I will talk about ‘Bit coin’ here.

        1. The current virtual currency ’bit coin’ is exchanged by exclusively target of speculation, and its price is decided by trading of people seeking speculative opportunities, but its value is not being guaranteed by actual economic activity.

 

        1. Even the virtual currency should contribute to the development of the real economy. I think that this contribution should be newly‐developing regions of the world. However, the military nations and dictatorship nations must be excluded. ‘Bit coin’ is a community currency, but it should not be a currency that circulates in only one region in one country. This is because it causes economic confusion and disturbance. Therefore, I think, in the newly‐developing regions of the world, we should contribute to the countries that aim to develop as a democratic nation and a liberal state nation. In this time, in these countries, it cannot be said that the existence of countries that are willing to issue currencies in unit of ‘Bit’, as I wrote above, is none at all. However, here, avoiding involvement in the state, establishing the Association (provisional name) of the ‘Bit coin’ network, and next, through the activities of this Association, investing in the countries with the will that I wrote above, the participants to the ‘Bit coin’ network would realize to contribute to the rich society of that country and the development of people.

 

        1. As a result, ‘Bit coin’ become to have worth having the connections with the real economy through the activities of the Association which is the activity organization of the ‘Bit coin’ network community and funding provided by the Association.

 

        1. Also, people who have connections with ‘Bit coin’ on the network must make efforts to realize this vision and contribute to the development of the country that realizes the vision.

 

Please note

The view which is writing here is the personal opinion of this blog author.



The virtual dialog with Dr. Karl Popper

The virtual dialog with Dr. Karl Popper

 

The moon in day

* This article was written Japanese on October 7, 2013 and again translate into English.

 

A. About the history

 

  1. About a certain writing, the Doctor has been described that ‘the same past history as it really occurred is not able to exist’, after adding on the condition of reservation that says that it is been saying like the one that was written with relating a history of Europe. (“The Open Society and Its Enemies”, p399-p401 Misuzu Shobo in Japan 1980) The point of this argument is a logic that it says that ‘it is one piece of interpretation and it is also possible about the other interpretation and therefore it is not the history’. Is it really so? For example, if the description is not false, the fact that Caesar crossed the Rubicon River has been coming conveyed, we can say that it is the history. The interpretation is an other problem.

 

  1. The Doctor has been written as follows. When we go beyond ‘the idea that it says that history of power would be our judge’, that is, when we go beyond the idea that it says that we had been in a position of passive person looking from the man of power, ‘we will succeed in placing the power under our control. As such, we will be able to justify the history from our side’. (ib. p410) This is the attitude of the democrat and this is the one which can be called the history active principle. However, it is thought that the Doctor seems to have been refused the previous history. Here are two worlds, that is, there is a world that is not the history and there is a world that became the history. How will we recognize these two worlds to be the history? Should we call it ‘pre-history’ and ‘true-history’? Both are in one continuity of the same time together. We will gather facts of each one which occurred in the history from the already written history documents and the data, and composing it is the task of us.

 

B. About the possibility of opposite proof

 

  1. ‘The possibility of opposite proof’ theory is the proof of percipient mind of the Doctor. The essence of the way of this thinking is the one that it says that ‘all theories have stayed in a hypothesis until being disproved it’. It is not the one that an ordinary man can refute the consistence of the logic that the Doctor was made. However, some reason that feels fuzzy remains in the view of the world of the ordinary man. This may become the encouragement, too, for the scientists to do the study of the most advanced field. However, it is possible even to say that the world is formed on the temporary phenomenon when this view of the world is expanded in the world of the daily life and is reasoned. I think that it can also solve by the strict rule of the field, but the world that thinking content by different fields is different returns like the classic theology world, it is not preferable. This also seems to be a problem related to the core of thinking, what the thought thinks.

 

  1. On September 4, there was a news that the existence of the Higgs particle was confirmed. Now, the universe is considered to continue to be changing. Among the Space time, the time that the human being lives is at most only 100 years. However, we are now living. And, the town has spread in front of our eyes, the world is spreading. This world is beautiful and powerful. Would this world have been forming on the hypothesis? I think that it is not so. If saying extremely, ‘The possibility of opposite proof’ theory is possible even to lead to the conjectures that it says that, among in the Space time, our 100 years are only like a temporary phenomenon. I think I would like to avoid such reasoning. I think that the thought that surely proves the human being’s current time among the Space time is necessary.

 

C. About the evaluation of Marx

 

  1. The Doctor is described as follows. “The ‘scientific’ Marxism died. The sense of social responsibility and the love to freedom must survive.” (ib. P351)

 

  1. I thought of Marx, from the viewpoint that it says that why Marxism loses the freedom. And, ①. I clarified that his theory of value was the one which cuts off the variety of the personality of the human beings. And, ②. I got the proposition that it says that “the thought which have a rational outward appearance that appears in the history is not necessarily all the truth”. And furthermore, ③. I got the conclusion that it says that “the world of Marx is forming on the fictional structure”. From the theory of Marx, even if freedom is a desire, freedom is not born.

 

  1. The Doctor has been said, ‘Science tries, and it makes progress by straightening an error.’ (ib. p245) In addition, the Doctor has been said, ‘Marx thought is a theory which has the relation purely with history, a theory aiming to predict the future course of the development at the viewpoint of economic and power struggle, also especially revolution.’ (ib.246) But Marxism is not a science. Marxism demands an action to the person who believes it. What is action it demands? History testifies that the mountain of death and bloodshed has been built where there was Marxism. ―― This “death” contains, such as the death of freedom of speech, the death of freedom of the press, the death of freedom of religion, the death of freedom of conscience, the death of diversity of the human beings and its freedom, and the death of the fundamental human rights. ―― This fact teaches to us that the person who loves liberty and democracy must fight against it.

 

D. About Hegel

 

  1. I read Hegel to know what Marx got from Hegel. Hegel thought the world is the one which the spirit has appeared. I have been understanding by allotting Spinoza’s Nature to the Hegel’s Spirit. Spinoza’s Nature is also the God. This seemed to be heresy of Judaism at that time, and he was excommunicated (expelled). As the succession of such nature = spirit, I considered Hegel. This Nature was also succeeded to Marx. Marx did nature the spirit of Hegel. In case of Hegel, the one that the spirit appeared was a human being, was a community and was a nation. The human being was an object (thing) at the same time. Marx reversed and replaced this spirit with matter. In addition, Hegel is a person who introduced labor to the philosophy. This is the most biggest factor Marx selected Hegel. The human being is making the world by activities of day and days. In this way, the fact that it says that people who are making the world, that is, people who work are the Subject of the world had come and been capturing by Marx.

 

  1. In case of Hegel, he had grasped that the history is the movement and the phenomenon of spirit. Marx had grasped that the history is the movement of the matter. In the consciousness of Hegel, the human being is the existence that the human being, as the independent, that is, the main constituent, is going to establish the self. When this becomes Marx, the human being was considered as the existence that he does not yet establish the independent and as the existence that he is to establish himself by class struggle. That is, the individual main constituents (human beings) are caught as members in one class, and the whole class that the individual main constituents (human beings) belong is considered as one main constituent. The way of thinking to catch the whole of this class as one main constituent has become a national view at the former Soviet Union (especially the time of Stalin), at the generation before a little of The People’s Republic of China , and at the current North Korea. In other words, the whole of the people is one indivisible main constituent and becomes the cause that is a nation. This fact shows that in order for them to get democracy, it is necessary to start by thinking about what it means that humans behave as individuals and as independent human being. And in the People’s Republic of China, now, the people who are beginning it are appearing. This is China’s hope.

 

  1. I would want to enter into Hegel of the Doctor, but cannot easily do it. The Doctor has been refused Hegel. The Doctor connected German racists and Hegel, and he had been put racist’s responsibility on Hegel. This logic let be Hegel a banned book.

 

  1. I am thinking dialectics to be a method that human beings develops own-selves by dialogs. I don’t admit the one which is useful to a method of Marx. However, in case of Hegel, I think that we can admit the following three as our mental attitude and the way of confronting when we face the modern world. ① The dialectic that removes the pedantic accessories like “an sich – für sich – an und für sich ” and like ” fürsichsein “. ② The method of the self-confirming. ③ The concept of approval of others.

 

  1. The life of Hegel is from August, 1770 to November, 1831. In this era, the industrial revolution has already been biginning from the United Kingdom. There was the French Revolution in 1789. Napoleon also had appeared. This era was at unquiet days in Europe and was also the dawn period of modern Europe. Germany was also in this stepping. Hegel was here and was the person who thought about ‘the nation’. Those who want to read Hegel should understand these histories well and can read this philosopher’s description. There is no word of ’a banned book’ anywhere in the Doctor’s book. However, ‘Hegel and new tribalism’ which is included in ‘The Open Society and Its Enemies’ that the Doctor was written has enough intensity to forbid the reader to touch Hegel. We have to read Hegel by having recognized the Doctor’s criticism well.




About the evaluation of Dr. Karl Popper against the Hegel’s dialectic

About the evaluation of Dr. Karl Popper against the Hegel’s dialectic

 

Sky with clouds in summer and early autumn

* This sentence is a republishing one that was written on July 28, 2013 (Japanese version).

 

A. Hegel’s dialectic in “Conjectures and Refutations” of Dr. Karl Popper

 

α. It is first, about miscellaneous thoughts.

 

  1. In Dr. Karl Popper, Hegel compares with Kant, his position occupies a bad one. It is the completely opposite evaluation more than it says that his position is bad. Kant is clearly stated, and it let people who read it consents. On the other hand, about the point at issue of Hegel, it is thought that a lucidity of Doctor as the critic will be ideological problem rather than it says that it is indistinctness.

 

  1. As this cause, next thing can be thought. Firstly, what Kant had done is the philosophy that puts self’s thinking as a basis when he attempts to recognize an object, and it is that Dr. Popper has been also inherited this position. Second, that of Hegel is the self-completing (self-accomplishing) philosophy. From Germany, Marx and Hitler had come out. Marx is a Hegel’s student, and as for Hitler, the concept of self-completing ‘The Absolute Being’ of Hegel might let capture him fanatically. Hitler was thought as an enemy of a liberal society.

 

  1. I am always thinking. Before the times of Hitler (1889-1945), there was Max Weber (1864-1920) of the philosopher. The philosopher such as the star which shined was alive in Europe. However, they could not prevent the emergence of Hitler. I often think why this had occurred. Hegel called Napoleon the spirit of world. Beethoven wrote the symphony No3. Against Hitler too, because people were manipulated by his words, his supporters might be unexpectedly many. And, it is said that he was excellent in making speeches, and he played music of Wagner (1813-1883) before his speech, and he made the atmosphere that invited the audience to enthusiasm. However, Nazis’s act, if it is still called politics in today, it is the politics that deny a human being and we must not permit the appearance of a person like Hitler at any time. That is the target of the battle that we must face with full power. Why would philosophers have been powerless against such situations?

 

  1. Dr. Popper (1902-1994), too, was while living. As for the book, “The Logic of Scientific Discovery” was written in 1934 and “The Open Society and its Enemies” was published in 1945. A reason that Dr. Popper has been lacked lucidity against Hegel, Hegel was a German philosopher, and it is thought that it may not be able to deny that there was tense thought that the Jewish people had been accommodated to the concentration camps. Many Jewish people were involved in the October Revolution in Russian. As its representative, we will be able to pick a person called Leon Trotsky. He had been assassinated in Mexico by assassinators of Stalin (1940). Also in those days, communism had been scattering illusions on philosophers.

 

  1. Dr. Popper is more favorable to Marx than Hegel. I’m thinking that the world of Marx is the world of the fiction. I write it later, but there is a description to accept that a person draws the world of the fiction, in a Doctor too, through Kant. If this is to draw the fiction world, like Marx, in our daily world, we must refuse it. The cause that a lot of people of the egg of the scientist having the high educational background participated in the acts of terrorism of Omu Shinrikyo may exist in the place like this reason. Again, it is obvious that the fictional world where is made such a religion by the fiction is unacceptable.

 

β.It is Hegel’s dialectic

 

  1. About the dialectic, please refer to an article on December 31, 2011 (Japanese version) ‘A. About the dialectic’ in “Law and Justice 6”.

 

  1. The Doctor mentions Hegel and was explained like next. ‘Dialectics is the theory that insists that something one, especially human’s thought, develop by a method that is characterized by what is called “dialectical three steps growth” saying ‘ These – Antithese – Synthese ‘. This explanation is an error. This is rather the one that the Doctor has been spoken about “the development of dialectics” that, in particular, was prescribed by Engels of the times of Marx.

 

  1. Philosophy of Hegel is the self-confirming philosophy. The self faces with the others, the other things, the other world, and establishes one self and goes. He called this way the dialectic that succeeds to the dialogue method of the ancient Greek philosophy. It is a method of Socrates and is the method of “Conjectures and Refutations” of Dr. Popper, too. In this way, the self understands own-self and the world and develops both congruently. This is the skeleton of the philosophy of Hegel.

Note

The self: In the case of Hegel, it is also a spirit. The act of human being is the act of each human being’s sprit, we may (can) understand that self is sprit and nature. I’m doing so.

 

  1. However, Hegel says, “The absolute being is the spirit.” (Enzyklopädie, 384) Also he says “The absolute spirit”. (Ib. 385) A little difficult words line up but several words Hegel’s saying exist here. ” The objective state of sprit and the ideal state of sprit, that is, the unification with its concept, when it exists absolutely, and when it is with the state of unification that produce the self forever, and when the spirit is absolute truth state, this is the absolute spirit.” (Ib. 385) This is the arrival point of self-conclusion type philosophy of Hegel. I’m being a state that I cannot understand this “the absolute being ” and ” the absolute spirit “.

 

  1. Therefore I quote Hegel one more. “The spirit can endure negation of own individual immediateness, that is, infinite pain. In other words, the spirit support affirmatively oneself against this negativity and can be the same one for oneself. This possibility is the universality that one spirit shows that oneself seeks ‘the confronting (facing) – the self – the affirming’ “. (Ib. 382) When the self is the spirit, we know that this is the world in Japan that has been preached as an ultimate state of the realization of the Zen, and as mental attitude of every days of the excellent ‘samurai’, too. However, when the self is the nature, we know that an equation saying ‘the self = the natural = the absolute being’ is equal cannot establish. Therefore I decided to call this absolute being ‘the arrogance of thought’, ‘the disrespect of consideration’. And also, this method of recognizing of ‘the absolute being’ which Hegel used is denied, even if we say from the dialectic (dialogue method) which had been the beginning of his self-awareness. Did he know this? It is not able to know now. But it is interesting when we think that he had been noticing it. He left such a problem for us of the coming age. But let’s move forward without stopping.

 

  1. Hegel’s achievement is in the point to be the person who was conscious that he introduces labor to the philosophy. “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations” of Adam Smith was published in 1776. It thinks that he was inspired by this. Hesiodos of ancient Greece had preached that it is diligent in “Works and Days”. The labor is talked in the Bible too. From ancient times, people have been understanding that the labor is the one which brings wealth to the people by obtaining its produce and product of useful fortune. Hegel had incorporated this labor which is the source producing wealth with works and as the source which produces the world, in the philosophical world.

 

  1. Since then the object that the philosophy treat becomes the world. Until then, the philosopher had ascertained his existence and the world, by his thinking. A typical example is enough to remember that Descartes said: ‘Je pense, donc je suis’ (= ‘I think, so I am’). In the same way, the artist inspires one’s personality to one’s work. Politician aims to make a society which people are able to have worth which live in life. A scholar makes one’s academic achievement and effective policy proposal the evidence of one’s existence. By the same way as this, a decoration craftsman of the Japanese Edo era makes the workmanship of his ornamental ‘kanzasi’ the evidence of his existence, and a modern reinforcing steel rod worker is able to see the proof of his work in building that completed. It is Hegel that made this world possible. We must not forget this point which is his achievement, even if how he may be disparaged.

 

γ. Dr. Popper’s method

 

  1. Dr. Popper was inherited the method of Kant. The Doctor is described, ‘The intelligence does not derive the law from nature but imposes the law to nature.’ (“Conjectures and Refutations”, ‘Copernicus-like Turn of Kant’) And, about this, Doctor is described that this is a formulation by Kant. This description is also the one that should say ‘the arrogance of the thought’. It is not exactly correct. It is only when nature is behaving its own behavior or when it is possible to reason its behavior we can describe the natural phenomenon as the law or the hypothesis. Kant has written that ‘all things that occur, even if it will be saying hypothetically, are inevitable’. (” Critique of Pure Reason”, ‘Refutation against the idealism’, Japan Iwanami Bunko first volume P307) All the hypothesis and the philosophical all structures which are made hypothetically cannot be acceptable all their assertions (words).

 

δ. Error of Marx

 

  1. The world of Marx is the world of the fiction. The society which assumes the homogeneity of labor and the coessentiality of society is assembled.

 

  1. About the homogeneity of labor, if it is suppose that 10,000 persons are here with order of A B C D– – – -. That these people to work, that is, labor (Marx called this labor “outlay of human labor force of the physiological meaning”.) are placed equally in unit A of the same price. This is the basis of Marx’s economic theory. On this basis, the exchange theory that changed unit A to labor hours have been built up.

 

  1. Only saying easily, too, we find that Marx truncated the significance that a human being lives for variously, and he composed his theory. And he had been approving such a truncation in a draft of his ‘doctoral thesis’. There is no reason society thus fabricated is freedom.

 

Information

  1. In the article, the quotation of Dr. Popper, Hegel and Kant is translated from Japanese to English. Please consult the ones that are published in each country.